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Wesley A. Clark Papers | Bernard Becker Medical Library Archives

Collection Overview

Title: Wesley A. Clark PapersAdd to your cart.

ID: FC/FC186

Extent: 17.5 Linear Feet

Biographical/Historical Note

Wesley Allison Clark (1927-2016) is credited as the designer of the first personal computer and for being a pioneering architect of many other important computers characterized by their interactive nature including the first computer with a ferrite-core memory, the first all-transistorized computer, and the first computer with a million-bit memory.

Clark earned a bachelor’s degree in physics from the University of California at Berkeley in 1947.  In the course of further graduate study and research in reactor physics at the Hanford site of the Atomic Energy Commission, he became interested in the developing field of digital computers.  He joined the Lincoln Laboratory at MIT in 1952 to explore this new field while he worked on a degree in electrical engineering, which he received in 1955 from MIT.  At the Lincoln Laboratory, one of Clark’s first projects was working on Project Whirlwind, an early vacuum tube computer prototype of the Semi-Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE) system which monitored a series of US Air Force radars for the purpose of detecting Russian bombers flying over the North Pole.

Clark spent twelve years at MIT participating in various computer development activities as Associate Group Leader of the Digital Computer Group at Lincoln Laboratory, a member of the research staff of the Research Laboratory of Electronics, and a Lecturer in Electrical Engineering.  During this time, Clark led the design of two significant experimental computers:  the Lincoln TX-0 (the world’s first transistorized computer) and the TX-2, which introduced a graphical computer interface.  Clark and his associates at MIT then built a prototype of his design for the LINC (Laboratory INstrument Computer) in 1962 using modules made by the Digital Equipment Corporation.

Clark came to Washington University from MIT in 1964 when he was appointed Research Professor of Computer Science, and he brought with him many of the computer engineers who were on his team that had developed the LINC.  Along with Charles Molnar at the university’s Computer Systems Laboratory, Clark created the macromodule project, a set of computer building blocks that laid the foundations for asynchronous computation.  From 1967-1972, Clark directed the laboratory’s program in the development of macromodular computer systems and their application to problems in biomedical research.  In 1967 at a Department of Defense principal investigators meeting, Clark proposed using a small computer as an interface message processor (IMP), an idea that was fundamental to the design of the first packet network and helped to launch the modern networking industry.

Clark was selected as one of only five American computer scientists who were invited to visit China for three weeks in 1972 in order to tour computer facilities and to discuss computer technology with Chinese computer science experts.  This visit sparked his interest in text processing Chinese characters by computer.  Following his visit to China, Clark left Washington University in 1972 to move to Cambridge, Massachusetts where he pursued a career as a consultant.  Although no longer affiliated with Washington University, he continued to serve on the university’s Computer Laboratories Advisory Committee, and acted as a consultant to other academic, governmental, and industrial organizations.  In 1977-1978, he took part in the VLSI research program at the California Institute of Technology as the Sherman Fairchild Distinguished Scholar.  Clark moved to New York City in 1981, joined the consulting group of Sutherland, Sproull, and Associates the following year, and continued working on the computer transcription of Chinese characters with support from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA).

Clark was a National Lecturer of the Association for Computing Machinery in 1966 and a Lecturer in the Distinguished Visitor Program of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers in 1968.  He served on the National Academy of Sciences Committee on the Use of Computers in the Life Sciences (1961-1963), the Computer Science and Engineering Board (1968-1971), and the Committee on Scholarly Communication with the Peoples Republic of China (1974-1976).  He received the ACM-IEEE Eckert-Mauchly Award for Computer Architecture in 1981 and was a charter recipient of the IEEE Computer Pioneer Award for “First Personal Computer.”  He was elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 1999.

Scope and Contents of the Materials

This collection contains materials related to Wesley Clark’s work in the field of computer science and his involvement in international scholarly exchanges, with a small part of the collection related to his personal life. Materials related to his work in computer science focus primarily on the LINC (Laboratory INstrument Computer), Macromodular Computer Systems and processing written Chinese for computer display. There is a modest representation in the collection of Clark’s non-LINC work carried out at MIT:  Project Whirlwind, Lincoln Writer, L-1, and TX-2. These portions of the collection contain technical reports, memos, prototype drawings, LINC Evaluation program proceedings, publications, working notebooks, and notecards. The notebooks Wesley Clark used to develop his design of the LINC are of particular interest. Contract work represented includes Xerox PARC and Burroughs Corporation and contain expense statements, check stubs, reports, consulting agreements and correspondence.

Clark was involved in scholarly exchanges with the People’s Republic of China and the collection contains materials on multiple trips to China and materials from the CSCPRC (Committee on Scholarly Communication with the People’s Republic of China). Of particular interest is the 1972 visit to China where Clark, along with five other American computer experts (most accompanied by their wives), were selected to tour Chinese computer facilities. Materials include correspondence, minutes, newsletters, itineraries, travel journals, conference materials, brochures, articles, reports, notes, and ephemera.

Roughly half the collection is visual material in the form of photographs, contact sheets, negatives and slides. The majority of the visual collection include contact sheets and negatives (with a few photos) related to the projects and work carried out by the Computer Research Laboratory (CRL), later renamed the Computer Systems Laboratory, and focus on the LINC and Macromodular Computer Systems. Photographs, negatives and contact sheets of the 1972 trip to China are also noteworthy.

[FC186]

Administrative Information

Access Restrictions: This collection is open and accessible for research.

Use Restrictions:

Users of the collection should read and abide by the Rights and Permissions guidelines at the Bernard Becker Medical Library Archives.

Users of the collection who wish to cite items from this collection, in whole or in part, in any form of publication must request, sign, and return a Statement of Use form to the Archives.

For detailed information regarding use of this collection, contact the Archives and Rare Book Department of the Becker Library (arb@wusm.wustl.edu).

Related Materials:

Preferred Citation: [Item description, Box number, Folder number], Wesley A. Clark Papers, Bernard Becker Medical Library Archives, Washington University School of Medicine.


Box and Folder Listing


Browse by Series:

[Series 1: Computer Designs and Projects, 1952-1972, 2014],
[Series 2: International Scholarly Exchanges, Conferences, and Trips, 1971-1989],
[Series 3: Computer Text Processing of Chinese Language, 1957, 1967-1988],
[Series 4: Contract Work, 1970-1980],
[Series 5: Notebooks, 1974-1978, 2001, 2010],
[Series 6: Publications, 1957-1980],
[Series 7: Recognition and Honors, 1981-2007],
[Series 8: Correspondence, 1974-1997, 2009-2014],
[Series 9: Commentary, 1993-2013],
[Series 10: Biographical Material, 1952-1972, 1996-2014],
[Series 11: Photographs, Negatives, and Slides, 1963-1986],
[All]

Series 1: Computer Designs and Projects, 1952-1972, 2014Add to your cart.
This series contains materials related to computer development projects that Wesley Clark was involved in. Images related to these projects can be found in Series 11 Subseries 2.
Sub-Series 1: Project Whirlwind, 1952-1954Add to your cart.
Box 1Add to your cart.
Folder 1: Everett, R. R., and Swain, F.E. Report R-127-1. Whirlwind I Computer Block Diagrams. Volume 2 of 2. Cambridge: MIT, Reprinted May 1952.Add to your cart.
Originally printed September 1947. Created by the Digital Computer Laboratory at MIT.
Folder 2: Clark, W. A. The Multi-Sequence Program Concept. Memo 6M-3144. November 5, 1954.Add to your cart.
Includes original copy and a photocopy.
Folder 3: Mann, M. F., Rathbone, R. R., and Bennett, J. B. Report R-221. Whirlwind I Operation Logic. Cambridge: MIT. May 1, 1954.Add to your cart.
Created by the Digital Computer Laboratory at MIT.
Sub-Series 2: Lincoln Writer, L-1, and TX-2, 1959-1968Add to your cart.
Box 1Add to your cart.
Folder 4: Gilmore, J. T., Jr., and Savell, R. E. The Lincoln Writer. Lexington, MA: MIT October 6, 1959.Add to your cart.
Group Report 51-8 prepared for Lincoln Laboratory. Approved by Wesley A. Clark. This version is an incomplete photocopy and only contains pages 5 and 6 and Figure 3 Scope Writer Examples.
Folder 5: Clark, W. A. A Functional Description of the L-1 Computer. Lexington, MA: MIT. March 23, 1960.Add to your cart.
Prepared for the Lincoln Laboratory. Three photocopies of report.
Folder 6: Olsen, K. H. and Clark, W. A. Lincoln TX-2 Computer. Memo 6M-4713. September 25, 1956.Add to your cart.
Folder 7: Clark, W. A., Frankovich, J. M., Peterson, H. P., Forgie, J. W. and Best, R. L. The Lincoln TX-2 Computer. April 1, 1957.Add to your cart.
Technical Report 6M-4968. Created for Lincoln Laboratory. Photocopied version of report and is missing: Title page and pages i-iii, 36, and 48.
Folder 8: Peterson, H. P. Some Examples of TX-2 Programming. Memo 6M-5780. July 23, 1958.Add to your cart.
Memo approved by Wesley Clark, includes original and a photocopy version. Created for Lincoln Laboratory.
Folder 9: Best, R. L. and Stockebrand, T. C. A Computer-Integrated Rapid-Access Magnetic Tape System with Fixed Address. New York: American Institute of Electrical Engineers. March 1959.Add to your cart.
This paper was presented at the Proceeding of the Western Joint Computer Conference held in Los Angeles, CA from May 6-8, 1958. This paper is about the TX-2 computer.
Folder 10: TX-2 Users Handbook, July 1961 - February 1964.Add to your cart.
Folder 11: Stockebrand, T. C. Bidirectional Retrieval of Magnetically Recorded Data. US Patent 3387293. June 4, 1968.Add to your cart.
Folder 12: TX-2 Diagrams, no date.Add to your cart.
Sub-Series 3: Laboratory Instrument Computer (LINC), 1961-1969Add to your cart.
Images related to this can be found in Series 11.
Box 1Add to your cart.
Folder 13: Working Notebook for LINC, Book I, May 24 - May 31, 1961.Add to your cart.
Wesley Clark's original notebook with his design ideas for creating the LINC.
Folder 14: Working Notebook for LINC, Book I, May 30 - June 2, 1961.Add to your cart.
Wesley Clark's original notebook with his design ideas for creating the LINC.
Folder 15: Working Notebook for LINC, Book I, June 3 - June 17, 1961.Add to your cart.
Wesley Clark's original notebook with his design ideas for creating the LINC.
Box 2Add to your cart.
Folder 1: Working Notebook for LINC, Book I, June 17 - June 27, 1961.Add to your cart.
Wesley Clark's original notebook with his design ideas for creating the LINC.
Folder 2: Working Notebook for LINC, Book I, June 27 - July 4, 1961.Add to your cart.
Wesley Clark's original notebook with his design ideas for creating the LINC.
Folder 3: Photocopy of Working Notebook for LINC, Book I, May 24 - July 4, 1961.Add to your cart.
Folder 4: Working Notebook for LINC, Book II, July 4 - August 15, 1961.Add to your cart.
Wesley Clark's original notebook with his design ideas for creating the LINC.
Folder 5: Photocopy of Working Notebook for LINC, Book II, July 5 - August 15, 1961.Add to your cart.
Select pages copied from Book II, not a complete copy.
Folder 6: Working Notebook for LINC, Book III, August 15 - December 25, 1961.Add to your cart.
Wesley Clark's original notebook with his design ideas for creating the LINC. On notebook cover includes an newspaper clipping from the New York Times, "Computer Aid Seen in Brain Research", June 15, 1961.
Box 3: LINC Prototype Drawing File, 1961-1962.Add to your cart.
Oversized. These are not the final set of drawings.
Box 4Add to your cart.
Folder 1: Wilkes, M. A. LINC III Order Code, July 31, 1963.Add to your cart.
Folder 2: Convocation on the Mississippi. LINC Evaluation Program. Washington University, March 18-19, 1965. File 1 of 2.Add to your cart.
Includes Cover, Title page, Table of Contents, List of Participants and Sections 1 thru 8.
Folder 3: Convocation on the Mississippi. LINC Evaluation Program. Washington University, March 18-19, 1965. File 2 of 2.Add to your cart.
Includes Sections 9 thru 13.
Folder 4: Photocopy of Convocation on the Mississippi. LINC Evaluation Program. Washington University, March 18-19, 1965.Add to your cart.
Not a complete copy, includes only the first ten pages.
Folder 5: LINC Schematics, 1965.Add to your cart.
Folder 6: Thomae, I. H. "An Introduction to Binary Numbers and Binary Arithmetic"  LINC Volume 16: Programming and Use I, Section 1.  Cambridge: MIT. April 1965.Add to your cart.
Folder 7: Wilkes, M. A. and Clark, W. A. "Programming the LINC" LINC Volume 16: Programming and Use I, Section 2. St. Louis: Washington University. June 1965.Add to your cart.
Folder 8: Wilkes, M. A. and Clark, W. A. "Programming the LINC" LINC Volume 16: Programming and Use I, Section 2. 2nd Edition. St. Louis: Washington University. January 1969.Add to your cart.
Box 5Add to your cart.
Folder 1: Ornstein, S. M. and Molnar, C. E. "Magnetic Tape System" LINC Volume 14: Theory of Operation II. St. Louis: Washington University. September 1966.Add to your cart.
Edited by Warren M. Littlefield.
Folder 2: Wilkes, M. A. LAP6 Handbook. Technical Report No. 2. St. Louis: Washington University. May 1, 1967.Add to your cart.
LINC Assembly Program (LAP)
Folder 3: Photocopy of LAP6 Handbook, May 1, 1967Add to your cart.
Folder 4: Wilkes, M. A. LAP6 Manuscript Listings. St. Louis: Washington University. May 1, 1967.Add to your cart.
Folder 5: Littlefield, W. M. The Design of a Tape Macromodule. Technical Report No. 3. St. Louis: Washington University. June 15, 1967.Add to your cart.
Folder 6: McDonald, M. D. LINC Questions and Answers Program, 1967.Add to your cart.
Folder 7: Memos on LINC Equipment Changes, 1963-1966, 1968.Add to your cart.
Authors of memos include: Mary Allen Wilkes, W. Simon, Charles Molnar, Severo Ornstein, D. L. Stewart, Maurice L. Pepper.
Folder 8: Miscellaneous LAP 6 and LINC instructions, circa 1963-1969.Add to your cart.
Authors in this folder include: Mary Allen Wilkes (also as Mary Allen Clark), Severo Ornstein and Robert Abbott.
Folder 9: LINC SINCOS Program, no date.Add to your cart.
Folder 10: Information Flow on the LINC, no date.Add to your cart.
Sub-Series 4: Macromodular Computer Design, 1974Add to your cart.
Technical reports. Images related to this can be found in Series 11 Subseries 2.
Box 5Add to your cart.
Folder 11: Macromodular Computer Design, Part 1. Development of Macromodules. Volume 2. A Macromodule User's Manual. Technical Report No. 25. February 1974Add to your cart.
Folder 12: Macromodular Computer Design, Part 1. Development of Macromodules. Volume 3. Design of Phase 1 Macromodules. Technical Report No. 46. February 1974Add to your cart.
Box 6Add to your cart.
Folder 1: Macromodular Computer Design, Part 1. Development of Macromodules. Volume 5. Laboratory Personnel and Bibliography. Technical Report No. 48. February 1974Add to your cart.
Folder 2: Macromodular Computer Design, Part 2. Manufacturing Description. Volume 1. General Standards and System Maintenance. Technical Report No. 30. February 1974.Add to your cart.
Folder 3: Macromodular Computer Design, Part 2. Manufacturing Description. Volume 2. Electronic Package Assembly. Technical Report No. 31. February 1974.Add to your cart.
Folder 4: Macromodular Computer Design, Part 2. Manufacturing Description. Volume 3. Electronic Package Assembly. Technical Report No. 32. February 1974.Add to your cart.
Folder 5: Macromodular Computer Design, Part 2. Manufacturing Description. Volume 4. Electronic Package Assembly. Technical Report No. 33. February 1974.Add to your cart.
Folder 6: Macromodular Computer Design, Part 2. Manufacturing Description. Volume 5. Logic Drawings. Technical Report No. 34. February 1974.Add to your cart.
Folder 7: Macromodular Computer Design, Part 2. Manufacturing Description. Volume 6. Printed Circuit Board Outlines and Electronic Package Mechanical Drawings. Technical Report No. 35. February 1974.Add to your cart.
Folder 8: Macromodular Computer Design, Part 2. Manufacturing Description. Volume 7. Faceplate Specifications. Technical Report No. 36. February 1974.Add to your cart.
Box 7Add to your cart.
Folder 1: Macromodular Computer Design, Part 2. Manufacturing Description. Volume 8. Faceplate Overlays, Overlay Labels and Faceplate Boxes, Types 1-4. Technical Report No. 37. February 1974.Add to your cart.
Folder 2: Macromodular Computer Design, Part 2. Manufacturing Description. Volume 9. Faceplate Boxes, Types 5-10. Technical Report No. 38. February 1974.Add to your cart.
Folder 3: Macromodular Computer Design, Part 2. Manufacturing Description. Volume 10. Parameter Switches, Mini Console, and L.E.D. Data Indicator. Technical Report No. 39. February 1974.Add to your cart.
Folder 4: Macromodular Computer Design, Part 2. Manufacturing Description. Volume 11. Cables. Technical Report No. 40. February 1974.Add to your cart.
Folder 5: Macromodular Computer Design, Part 2. Manufacturing Description. Volume 12. Frames Section and Base Pedestal. Technical Report No. 41. February 1974.Add to your cart.
Folder 6: Macromodular Computer Design, Part 2. Manufacturing Description. Volume 13. Frames Section and Base Pedestal. Technical Report No. 42. February 1974.Add to your cart.
Folder 7: Macromodular Computer Design, Part 2. Manufacturing Description. Volume 14. Pedestal Controller, Fan Module, Channel Coupler and Jigs. Technical Report No. 43. February 1974.Add to your cart.
Folder 8: Macromodular Computer Design, Part 3. Restructured Macromodules. Technical Report No. 49. February 1974.Add to your cart.
Sub-Series 5: Turing Machine Experiment, 1955, 1971-1972Add to your cart.
Images related to this can be found in Series 11.
Box 8Add to your cart.
Folder 1: Clark, W. A. The Logical Structure of Digital Computers: The Turing Machine. Memo 6M-3938 and Supplement 1. October 1955.Add to your cart.
Folder 2: Turing Machine Schematics and Drawings, 1971-1972. File 1 of 2.Add to your cart.
Folder 3: Turing Machine Schematics and Drawings, 1971-1972. File 2 of 2.Add to your cart.
Folder 4: Turing Machine Program for the mLINCAdd to your cart.
Folder 5: Notes and Drawings. File 1 of 2.Add to your cart.
See also: FC186-S08-B20-F06
Folder 6: Notes and Drawings. File 2 of 2.Add to your cart.
See also: FC186-S08-B20-F06
Folder 7: Computation and Turing Machine Bibliography.Add to your cart.
Sub-Series 6: Cybersecurity, 2014Add to your cart.
Box 8Add to your cart.
Folder 8: Q-Machines and Q-Nets, 2014Add to your cart.
See also: FC186-S08-B20-F13

Browse by Series:

[Series 1: Computer Designs and Projects, 1952-1972, 2014],
[Series 2: International Scholarly Exchanges, Conferences, and Trips, 1971-1989],
[Series 3: Computer Text Processing of Chinese Language, 1957, 1967-1988],
[Series 4: Contract Work, 1970-1980],
[Series 5: Notebooks, 1974-1978, 2001, 2010],
[Series 6: Publications, 1957-1980],
[Series 7: Recognition and Honors, 1981-2007],
[Series 8: Correspondence, 1974-1997, 2009-2014],
[Series 9: Commentary, 1993-2013],
[Series 10: Biographical Material, 1952-1972, 1996-2014],
[Series 11: Photographs, Negatives, and Slides, 1963-1986],
[All]

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