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Wesley A. Clark Papers | Bernard Becker Medical Library Archives

Collection Overview

Title: Wesley A. Clark PapersAdd to your cart.

ID: FC/FC186

Extent: 17.5 Linear Feet

Biographical/Historical Note

Wesley Allison Clark (1927-2016) is credited as the designer of the first personal computer and for being a pioneering architect of many other important computers characterized by their interactive nature including the first computer with a ferrite-core memory, the first all-transistorized computer, and the first computer with a million-bit memory.

Clark earned a bachelor’s degree in physics from the University of California at Berkeley in 1947.  In the course of further graduate study and research in reactor physics at the Hanford site of the Atomic Energy Commission, he became interested in the developing field of digital computers.  He joined the Lincoln Laboratory at MIT in 1952 to explore this new field while he worked on a degree in electrical engineering, which he received in 1955 from MIT.  At the Lincoln Laboratory, one of Clark’s first projects was working on Project Whirlwind, an early vacuum tube computer prototype of the Semi-Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE) system which monitored a series of US Air Force radars for the purpose of detecting Russian bombers flying over the North Pole.

Clark spent twelve years at MIT participating in various computer development activities as Associate Group Leader of the Digital Computer Group at Lincoln Laboratory, a member of the research staff of the Research Laboratory of Electronics, and a Lecturer in Electrical Engineering.  During this time, Clark led the design of two significant experimental computers:  the Lincoln TX-0 (the world’s first transistorized computer) and the TX-2, which introduced a graphical computer interface.  Clark and his associates at MIT then built a prototype of his design for the LINC (Laboratory INstrument Computer) in 1962 using modules made by the Digital Equipment Corporation.

Clark came to Washington University from MIT in 1964 when he was appointed Research Professor of Computer Science, and he brought with him many of the computer engineers who were on his team that had developed the LINC.  Along with Charles Molnar at the university’s Computer Systems Laboratory, Clark created the macromodule project, a set of computer building blocks that laid the foundations for asynchronous computation.  From 1967-1972, Clark directed the laboratory’s program in the development of macromodular computer systems and their application to problems in biomedical research.  In 1967 at a Department of Defense principal investigators meeting, Clark proposed using a small computer as an interface message processor (IMP), an idea that was fundamental to the design of the first packet network and helped to launch the modern networking industry.

Clark was selected as one of only five American computer scientists who were invited to visit China for three weeks in 1972 in order to tour computer facilities and to discuss computer technology with Chinese computer science experts.  This visit sparked his interest in text processing Chinese characters by computer.  Following his visit to China, Clark left Washington University in 1972 to move to Cambridge, Massachusetts where he pursued a career as a consultant.  Although no longer affiliated with Washington University, he continued to serve on the university’s Computer Laboratories Advisory Committee, and acted as a consultant to other academic, governmental, and industrial organizations.  In 1977-1978, he took part in the VLSI research program at the California Institute of Technology as the Sherman Fairchild Distinguished Scholar.  Clark moved to New York City in 1981, joined the consulting group of Sutherland, Sproull, and Associates the following year, and continued working on the computer transcription of Chinese characters with support from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA).

Clark was a National Lecturer of the Association for Computing Machinery in 1966 and a Lecturer in the Distinguished Visitor Program of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers in 1968.  He served on the National Academy of Sciences Committee on the Use of Computers in the Life Sciences (1961-1963), the Computer Science and Engineering Board (1968-1971), and the Committee on Scholarly Communication with the Peoples Republic of China (1974-1976).  He received the ACM-IEEE Eckert-Mauchly Award for Computer Architecture in 1981 and was a charter recipient of the IEEE Computer Pioneer Award for “First Personal Computer.”  He was elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 1999.

Scope and Contents of the Materials

This collection contains materials related to Wesley Clark’s work in the field of computer science and his involvement in international scholarly exchanges, with a small part of the collection related to his personal life. Materials related to his work in computer science focus primarily on the LINC (Laboratory INstrument Computer), Macromodular Computer Systems and processing written Chinese for computer display. There is a modest representation in the collection of Clark’s non-LINC work carried out at MIT:  Project Whirlwind, Lincoln Writer, L-1, and TX-2. These portions of the collection contain technical reports, memos, prototype drawings, LINC Evaluation program proceedings, publications, working notebooks, and notecards. The notebooks Wesley Clark used to develop his design of the LINC are of particular interest. Contract work represented includes Xerox PARC and Burroughs Corporation and contain expense statements, check stubs, reports, consulting agreements and correspondence.

Clark was involved in scholarly exchanges with the People’s Republic of China and the collection contains materials on multiple trips to China and materials from the CSCPRC (Committee on Scholarly Communication with the People’s Republic of China). Of particular interest is the 1972 visit to China where Clark, along with five other American computer experts (most accompanied by their wives), were selected to tour Chinese computer facilities. Materials include correspondence, minutes, newsletters, itineraries, travel journals, conference materials, brochures, articles, reports, notes, and ephemera.

Roughly half the collection is visual material in the form of photographs, contact sheets, negatives and slides. The majority of the visual collection include contact sheets and negatives (with a few photos) related to the projects and work carried out by the Computer Research Laboratory (CRL), later renamed the Computer Systems Laboratory, and focus on the LINC and Macromodular Computer Systems. Photographs, negatives and contact sheets of the 1972 trip to China are also noteworthy.

[FC186]

Administrative Information

Access Restrictions: This collection is open and accessible for research.

Use Restrictions:

Users of the collection should read and abide by the Rights and Permissions guidelines at the Bernard Becker Medical Library Archives.

Users of the collection who wish to cite items from this collection, in whole or in part, in any form of publication must request, sign, and return a Statement of Use form to the Archives.

For detailed information regarding use of this collection, contact the Archives and Rare Book Department of the Becker Library (arb@wusm.wustl.edu).

Related Materials:

Preferred Citation: [Item description, Box number, Folder number], Wesley A. Clark Papers, Bernard Becker Medical Library Archives, Washington University School of Medicine.


Box and Folder Listing


Browse by Series:

[Series 1: Computer Designs and Projects, 1952-1972, 2014],
[Series 2: International Scholarly Exchanges, Conferences, and Trips, 1971-1989],
[Series 3: Computer Text Processing of Chinese Language, 1957, 1967-1988],
[Series 4: Contract Work, 1970-1980],
[Series 5: Notebooks, 1974-1978, 2001, 2010],
[Series 6: Publications, 1957-1980],
[Series 7: Recognition and Honors, 1981-2007],
[Series 8: Correspondence, 1974-1997, 2009-2014],
[Series 9: Commentary, 1993-2013],
[Series 10: Biographical Material, 1952-1972, 1996-2014],
[Series 11: Photographs, Negatives, and Slides, 1963-1986],
[All]

Series 2: International Scholarly Exchanges, Conferences, and Trips, 1971-1989Add to your cart.
Wesley Clark was particularly active in scholarly exchanges with China in the 1970s and 1980s, and took multiple trips to China for both professional and personal enrichment. This series includes materials related to those trips, as well as other similar international academic conferences Clark attended. Images from these trips can be found in Series 11.
Sub-Series 1: 1972 American Computer Scientists Tour Computer Technologies of China, 1971-1975.Add to your cart.
Severo Ornstein organized a trip to China from July 7-28, 1972 for a group of American computer scientists to tour Chinese computer facilities and participate in scholarly exchanges with Chinese computer scientists. The trip included six computer scientists and five of their wives: Severo Ornstein, Wesley Clark, Mary Allen Wilkes, Herbert Simon, Dorothy Pye, Anatol Holt, Ruth Holt, Alan Perlis, Sydelle Perlis, Thomas Cheatham, Jr., and Mary Cheatham. Images from this event can be found in Series 11.
Box 9Add to your cart.
Folder 1: Correspondence  regarding 1972 Computer Scientists Trip to China, June 10, 1971 - October 25, 1972.Add to your cart.
The majority of the correspondence is from Severo Ornstein organizing the trip. Other correspondents include: Thomas Cheatham Jr., Keith Uncapher from AFIPS (American Federation of Information Processing Societies), Wesley Clark, the Cultural Office of the Embassy of the People's Republic of China in Canada, Mary Allen Wilkes (also as Mary Allen Clark), Carl A. Dauten, Anne Keatley from CSCPRC, Louis R. Feldman, and Ezra F. Vogel.
Folder 2: Visa Applications for Wesley Clark and Mary Allen Wilkes.Add to your cart.
Folder 3: Photocopy of Mary Allen Wilkes' Travel Journal, July 10-27, 1972.Add to your cart.
Folder 4: Notes taken on 1972 China Trip, 1972.Add to your cart.
Folder 5: Participants to the Lectures and Discussions in China, 1972.Add to your cart.
Includes a key to who is who in a photograph. The corresponding photo is located in: FC186-S11-SS03-B29-F27
Folder 6: Chinese Newspapers, July 1972.Add to your cart.
Material in Chinese.
Folder 7: Hsinhua News Bulletin, July 1972.Add to your cart.
Folder 8: South China Morning Post, July 29, 1972.Add to your cart.
Includes an article about the American Computer Scientists visiting China titled "China Well Up in Computer Age" by Victor Wu.
Folder 9: China Receipts, July 1972.Add to your cart.
Folder 10: Ephemera from 1972 China TripAdd to your cart.
Includes tourist maps, menus, brochures, a magazine, airline ticket receipts, and name tags in Chinese.
Folder 11: Remittance advance from the National Academy of Sciences, 1972.Add to your cart.
Folder 12: Articles on American Computer Scientists Trip to China, 1972.Add to your cart.
Folder 13: Wilkes, M. A. China Diary. Washington University Magazine Vol. 43, No. 1. Fall 1972.Add to your cart.
Article was written under the name Mary Allen Clark, who is Mary Allen Wilkes. It is based on the journal she kept while traveling in China with Wesley Clark and the other American computer scientists. The journal can be found at: FC186-S02-SS01-B09-F03. This folder also includes the copyright claim certificate for the article.
Folder 14: Simon, H. A. Mao's China in 1972. Items, Vol. 27 No. 1, March 1973.Add to your cart.
Folder 15: Cheatham, T. E., Jr., Clark, W. A., Holt, A. W., Ornstein, S. M., Perlis, A. J. and Simon, H. A. Computing in China: A Travel Report. Science, 182: 134-140. Reprint from October 12, 1973.Add to your cart.
Folder 16: Computing in China article drafts, notes and correspondence.Add to your cart.
Folder 17: Zoeckler, E. L. Washington U. Provided CIA with Photos. St. Louis Post-Dispatch. January 12, 1975.Add to your cart.
Sub-Series 2: 1973 First International Symposium on Computers and Chinese Input/Output Systems, 1973.Add to your cart.
Held in Taipei, Taiwan. August 14-16, 1973. Wesley Clark was a consultant for Xerox at the time of this symposium and was reimbursed for his expenses by Xerox. (See FC186-S04-SS01-B16-F02). Images from this event can be found in Series 11.
Box 10Add to your cart.
Folder 1: Correspondence regarding First International Symposium on Computers and Chinese Input/Output Systems, 1973.Add to your cart.
This folder relates to Wesley Clark's participation in the symposium. Correspondents include S. K. Chang, Henry Y. H. Chuang and Julius T. Tou.
Folder 2: Paper Abstracts from First International Symposium on Computers and Chinese Input/Output Systems, August 14-16, 1973.Add to your cart.
Folder 3: Dual-language program for the First International Symposium on Computers and Chinese Input/Output Systems, August 14-16, 1973.Add to your cart.
Folder 4: Address delivered by President Chien Shih-liang at the Opening Ceremony of the First International Symposium on Computers and Chinese Input/Output Systems, August 14, 1973.Add to your cart.
Dr. Chien Shih-lian is the president of Academia Sinica, one of the sponsors of the symposium.
Folder 5: Computer symposium opens. China Post Vol. 21 No. 7955, August 15, 1973.Add to your cart.
Newspaper article includes a picture of Dr. Chien Shih-liang giving his opening address.
Folder 6: Conference event schedule, August 17-20, 1973.Add to your cart.
Material in Chinese.
Folder 7: General Information of the Electrical Engineering Department of National Taiwan University, 1973 - 1974.Add to your cart.
Folder 8: Documents from Taiwan National University, 1973-1974.Add to your cart.
Date on materials are Republic of China Year 62 and 63, which is dated in accordance with the Minguo calendar. Materials in Chinese.
Folder 9: Science Bulletin. National Chiao-Tung University. Vol. 6, No. 1. February 1973.Add to your cart.
Journal is in English and Chinese.
Folder 10: Academia Sinica. Chinese Characters Input and Output System Reference Material, Volume 1. July 20, 1973.Add to your cart.
Date on material is Republic of China Year 62, which is dated in accordance with the Minguo calendar. Material in Chinese.
Folder 11: Computer Aided Learning of the Writing of Chinese Characters. Doctoral research proposal by Shangchun Chen, 1973.Add to your cart.
There is a handwritten note from Henry Y. H. Chuang to Wesley Clark on the front page.
Folder 12: Flegal, R. Spline Function Representation of Chinese Characters, 1973.Add to your cart.
Sub-Series 3: 1973 Computer Visiting Group from China, 1973-1974.Add to your cart.
This event was organized by the CSCPRC which took place from October 5-November 9, 1973 and included tours of universities and computer facilities all over the US. Images from this event can be found in Series 11.
Box 10Add to your cart.
Folder 13: Correspondence and memos relating to the Computer Visiting Group from China, 1973-1974.Add to your cart.
This visit was arranged by the Committee on Scholarly Communication with the People's Republic of China (CSCPRC)
Folder 14: Fact sheet, list of hosts and guests for 1973 Computer Visiting Group from China.Add to your cart.
Folder 15: Itineraries for Computer Visiting Group from China.Add to your cart.
Sub-Series 4: Committee on Scholarly Communication with the People's Republic of China (CSCPRC), 1972-1978.Add to your cart.
Box 10Add to your cart.
Folder 16: Correspondence, announcements and notes relating to the Committee on Scholarly Communication with the People's Republic of China (CSCPRC), 1972-1978.Add to your cart.
Folder 17: China Exchange Newsletters, 1973-1974.Add to your cart.
This newsletter was put out by the CSCPRC.
Folder 18: Brown, H. Scholarly Exchanges with the People's Republic of China. Science, Vol. 183: 52-54. Reprinted from January 11, 1974.Add to your cart.
Folder 19: Emery, D. Acupuncture Anesthesia Study Group to the People's Republic of China, May 1-22, 1974.Add to your cart.
A report prepared for the CSCPRC recapping this group exchange visit.
Box 11Add to your cart.
Folder 1: CSCPRC Meeting Attendees and Minutes, 1975-1976.Add to your cart.
Folder 2: The Future of Academic Exchanges with the People's Republic of China. A Paper prepared for the Secretary of State by the CSCPRC. June 1975.Add to your cart.
Sub-Series 5: Scientific and Technical Association Delegation, 1975.Add to your cart.
Box 11Add to your cart.
Folder 3: Scientific and Technical Association Delegation from China, 1975.Add to your cart.
Folder includes correspondence, itinerary, and names and biographies of Chinese delegation.
Sub-Series 6: 1979 Computer Technical Visit to China, 1979-1980.Add to your cart.
Visit took place from April 23-May 10, 1979. Images from this event can be found in Series 11.
Box 11Add to your cart.
Folder 4: Correspondence, visa application, and list of American and Chinese participants in 1979 Computer Technical Visit to China, 1979-1980.Add to your cart.
Folder 5: Notes from trip, April 29, 1979.Add to your cart.
Folder 6: Paper Cut-outs from China, 1979.Add to your cart.
Folder 7: Tickets and Tags from Computer Technical Visit Trip to China, 1979.Add to your cart.
Folder 8: Ephemera from 1979 Computer Technical Visit to China, 1979.Add to your cart.
Folder includes currency notes from Hong Kong and China, menus, brochures, postcards and receipts.
Folder 9: Chinese Journal of Computers, 1979.Add to your cart.
Includes Volume 1, issues 1 and 2. Material in Chinese.
Folder 10: Cassette Tapes, April/May 1979.Add to your cart.
Item 1: China #1Add to your cart.
Audio cassette tape which covers April 27-May 1, 1979.
Item 2: China #2Add to your cart.
Audio cassette tape which covers May 1-9, 1979.
Sub-Series 7: 1983 Tourist Trip in China, 1983Add to your cart.
Trip took place from September 25-October 10, 1983. Images from this event can be found in Series 11.
Box 12Add to your cart.
Folder 1: Inter Pacific Tours International Paperwork and Ephemera for Tourist Trip to China, 1983.Add to your cart.
Folder includes visa application for Maxine Rockoff, reservation confirmations, receipts, itineraries, tickets, list of people in tour group, and a name tag for Maxine Rockoff.
Folder 2: China Receipts, 1983.Add to your cart.
Folder 3: Maxine Rockoff's Travel Journal in China, September 28, 1983 - October 10, 1983.Add to your cart.
Folder 4: China Postcards, 1983.Add to your cart.
Sub-Series 8: 1983 International Conference on Chinese Information Processing (ICCIP), 1983.Add to your cart.
Held in Beijing, China. October 12-14, 1983.
Box 12Add to your cart.
Folder 5: 1983 International Conference on Chinese Information Processing Program, List of Attendees and Opening Speech, October 12-14, 1983.Add to your cart.
Copy of opening speech in Chinese and English and was presented by Professor Qian Weichang.
Folder 6: Chinese Computer Information Processing System Exhibition, October 1983.Add to your cart.
Includes an invitation to the exhibit and an exhibit catalog. Materials in Chinese.
Folder 7: Handwritten notes from International Conference on Chinese Information Processing, October 1983.Add to your cart.
Folder 8: Business cards from International Conference on Chinese Information Processing.Add to your cart.
Folder 9: Introduction to the "WBZX" Scheme.Add to your cart.
Folder 10: Computer-Laser Chinese Characters Edit and Typesetting System, 1981, 1983.Add to your cart.
Materials in Chinese.
Folder 11: Liu, Hongmo. Liu's Language Pass. Chinese Grammar Special Edition. Chinese Characters Revolution Editorial Department. July 1, 1983.Add to your cart.
Materials in Chinese.
Folder 12: Wu, YongTong. Chinese Function ISBN3-9800393-5-8/-6-6 Explained. July 1983.Add to your cart.
Materials in Chinese.
Folder 13: Xiyun, Liang. Chinese Character Intelligent Terminal, July 1983.Add to your cart.
Materials in Chinese.
Folder 14: Chen, C. K. and Gong, R. W. Evaluation of the Chinese Input Method in R. O. C., October 1983.Add to your cart.
Folder 15: Imagawa, K. NDL Chinese Characters Code for JAPAN/MARC, no date.Add to your cart.
Sub-Series 9: 1983 International Conference on Text Processing (ICTP), 1977-1983.Add to your cart.
Held in Tokyo, Japan. October 17-19, 1983.
Box 12Add to your cart.
Folder 16: 1983 International Conference on Text Processing with a Large Character Set (ICTP) Program, October 17-19, 1983.Add to your cart.
Folder 17: Becker, J. D. "User-Friendly" Design for Japanese Typing, August 1983.Add to your cart.
This paper was presented at the ICTP conference.
Folder 18: Hisao, Y. and Tanaka, J. A Human Factors Study of Input Keyboard for Japanese Text. Technical Report 77-05. Department of Information Science Faculty of Science, University of Tokyo. October 1977.Add to your cart.
Folder 19: Hiraga, Y. Ono, Y. and Hisao, Y. An Assignment of Key-Codes for a Japanese Character Keyboard. Technical Report 80-12. Department of Information Science Faculty of Science, University of Tokyo. July 1980.Add to your cart.
Folder 20: Okadome, T., Hisao, Y., Ikeda, K. and Saito, M. Another Brain Wave Study of Cerebral Hemisphericity in Japanese Touch Typing. Department of Information Science Faculty of Science, University of Tokyo. September 1983.Add to your cart.
Folder 21: Hisao, Y. The Scope of the Tasks of the IPSJ Research Committee on Input Methods for Japanese Text: A Proposal. Working Note No. 7905-1. May 1979.Add to your cart.
Sub-Series 10: 1985 Joint National Academy of Sciences (NAS) - Chinese Academy of Science (CAS) Workshop on Text Processing by Computer, 1984-1989.Add to your cart.
Held at Hyatt Rickeys in Palo Alto, California on March1-2, 1985. Images from this event can be found in Series 11.
Box 13Add to your cart.
Folder 1: Correspondence relating to 1985 Joint NAS (National Academy of Sciences) - CAS (Chinese Academy of Science) Workshop on Text Processing by Computer, December 31, 1984 - August 30, 1989.Add to your cart.
Folder includes letters about American and Chinese participants in the workshop, itineraries, and letters about publishing the proceedings of the workshop.
Folder 2: Paper Abstracts and Biographies of Participants in NAS-CAS Workshop, 1985Add to your cart.
Folder 3: Chu, K. F. Automation of Chinese Characters for the 80'sAdd to your cart.
Folder 4: Jialu, Z. A Text-to-Speech System for Chinese.Add to your cart.
Presented at NAS-CAS workshop and reprinted in CSCPRC's Text Processing Chinese by Computer: Characters, Speech and Language. Folder contains 2 copies original paper in Chinese and an English translation.
Folder 5: Jialu, Z. Differentiation Between Subjective and Objective Understanding in Language.Add to your cart.
Article by Chinese participant in NAS-CAS workshop. Unclear if it was presented at the workshop, and is not reprinted in CSCPRC's publication of the proceedings. Materials in Chinese.
Folder 6: Jiazhi, L. Syntactics, Semantics and Reasoning in Understanding Chinese.Add to your cart.
Presented at NAS-CAS workshop and reprinted in CSCPRC's Text Processing Chinese by Computer: Characters, Speech and Language.
Folder 7: Naigan, Z. Chinese Character Codes for Computers.Add to your cart.
Presented at NAS-CAS workshop and reprinted in CSCPRC's Text Processing Chinese by Computer: Characters, Speech and Language. Contains original paper in Chinese and an English translation.
Folder 8: Naigan, Z. A Survey of Chinese Processing Systems in China.Add to your cart.
Presented at NAS-CAS workshop and reprinted in CSCPRC's Text Processing Chinese by Computer: Characters, Speech and Language.
Folder 9: Tai, J. W. A Method for Compound Chinese Character Recognition.Add to your cart.
Presented at NAS-CAS workshop and reprinted in CSCPRC's Text Processing Chinese by Computer: Characters, Speech and Language. Contains original paper in Chinese and an English translation.
Folder 10: Yunmei, D. Written Chinese Reform and Chinese Information Processing.Add to your cart.
Presented at NAS-CAS workshop and reprinted in CSCPRC's Text Processing Chinese by Computer: Characters, Speech and Language. Contains original paper in Chinese, 2 English translation and some notes.
Folder 11: Yupu, W. Computer Recognition of Printed Chinese Characters.Add to your cart.
Presented at NAS-CAS workshop and reprinted in CSCPRC's Text Processing Chinese by Computer: Characters, Speech and Language. Contains 2 copies of original paper in Chinese and 2 English translations.
Folder 12: Collection of Papers Presented at NAS-CAS Workshop.Add to your cart.
Includes an editor's forward by Wesley Clark. These papers ended up being published in the CSCPRC's Text Processing Chinese by Computer: Characters, Speech and Language. This is not a complete copy of the papers that appear in that publication.

Browse by Series:

[Series 1: Computer Designs and Projects, 1952-1972, 2014],
[Series 2: International Scholarly Exchanges, Conferences, and Trips, 1971-1989],
[Series 3: Computer Text Processing of Chinese Language, 1957, 1967-1988],
[Series 4: Contract Work, 1970-1980],
[Series 5: Notebooks, 1974-1978, 2001, 2010],
[Series 6: Publications, 1957-1980],
[Series 7: Recognition and Honors, 1981-2007],
[Series 8: Correspondence, 1974-1997, 2009-2014],
[Series 9: Commentary, 1993-2013],
[Series 10: Biographical Material, 1952-1972, 1996-2014],
[Series 11: Photographs, Negatives, and Slides, 1963-1986],
[All]

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