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Allen, Willard M.

  • no2005095261
  • Person
  • 1904-1993

Willard M. Allen (1904-1993) was an academic obstetrician-gynecologist. He studied organic chemistry at Hobart College before he went the University of Rochester in 1926 to study medicine. In 1927, he took time out from medical studies to do research with his anatomy professor, George W. Corner. Together, they monitored changes in the corpus luteum of rabbits. The corpus luteum produces progesterone, a hormone important to the maintenance of pregnancy. This hormone was unknown until Allen and Corner's discovery of it in their experiments. For this research, Allen earned a master's in science in 1929. After returning to his medical studies in 1930, he earned his M.D. in 1932. Allen and microchemist Oskar Wintersteiner were the first of four groups to isolate progesterone in 1933. After an internship and residency at Strong Memorial Hospital in Rochester, Allen joined the faculty of University of Rochester as Assistant Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology in 1936.

In 1940, Allen moved his gynecologic endocrine research operations to Washington University School of Medicine. At the time, he was the medical school's youngest department chair. He remained Department Chair and Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology for over 30 years. An early collaborator in the department was William H. Masters, M.D, of the famous Masters and Johnson research team. At Washington University, Dr. Allen's major discoveries were of the "Blue Color Test" for DHIA (dehydroisoandrosterone) in diagnosis of adrenal tumors and the development of the "Allen Correction." The Allen Correction was a simple mathematical formula which made possible the analysis of steroids and other compounds by colorimetry. Allen was the first to administer progesterone to human subjects for treatment of uterine bleeding. Outside the laboratory, his most famous contribution was the description of the "Allen-Masters" syndrome, defined as a laceration of ligaments causing abnormal mobility of the cervix.

After his retirement from Washington University in 1971, Willard M. Allen became Professor of Obstetrics at the University of Maryland. Dr. Allen later served as Associate Dean of the medical school at the University of Maryland from 1976-1982.

Barnes-Jewish Hospital

  • Corporate body
  • 1993-

In November 1992, Barnes and Jewish Hospitals signed an affiliation agreement, agreeing to pool resources wherever possible. This affiliation agreement was completed in March 1993 to create Barnes-Jewish, Incorporated (BJI). In April of 1993, BJI and Christian Health Services announced that they would affiliate to create BJC Health System, an affiliation which was finalized in June 1993. In January of 1996, a merger of Barnes and Jewish Hospital, built on the sharing of resources which began with the completion of the affiliation agreement in 1993, was legally completed, and the two became the present day Barnes-Jewish Hospital. Barnes-Jewish Hospital is consistently ranked among the best hospitals in America by U.S. News and World Report.

Curtman, Charles O.

  • 2014165141
  • Person
  • 1829-1896

Charles O. Curtman was born Karl Otto Curtman in Giessen, Germany and was a medical graduate of the university in his native city, where he was a student of Justus von Liebig. After working in Antwerp, Belgium as an industrial chemist, he emigrated to the United States and settled in New Orleans in 1850. When the Civil War began he was commissioned as a medical officer in a Confederate cavalry unit, but soon thereafter was assigned to direct the manufacture of medicines and explosives at army laboratories. After the war he practiced medicine in Memphis and from there was recruited to join the faculty of Missouri Medical College in St. Louis. He was Professor of Chemistry at the College from 1868 until 1874 and again from 1883 until his death.

Curtman also taught at the St. Louis College of Pharmacy (the two colleges maintained an informal affiliation) and was on the staff of the Mallinckrodt Chemical Works in the city. Too early to be considered a "biochemist," he was nonetheless a significant local pioneer in investigating and teaching laboratory science to medical and pharmacy students. He was the author of three laboratory manuals and numerous journal reviews of current scientific developments. At the very end of his life, he was among the first in St. Louis to investigate applications for the newly discovered principles of x-ray technology.

Davis, Hallowell, 1896-1992

  • 70808
  • Person
  • 1896-1992

Hallowell Davis was born in New York City on August 31, 1896. He studied at Harvard University, receiving a B.A. there in 1918 and an M.D. in 1922. Davis's interest in electrophysiology developed while doing post-graduate research in England under Lord Adrian. In 1923, Hallowell Davis joined the Department of Physiology at the Harvard Medical School. His research concentrated on the electrophysiology of nerves. He became associated with the informal group of scientists known as "axonologists," which also included Joseph Erlanger, Herbert Gasser, and others of WUSM. In the 1930s Davis began concentrating on problems relating to hearing, but was also active in research on electrical activity in the brain. He contributed to the development of one of the first ink-writing electroencephalographs. During World War II he did vital war-related research on human tolerance to loud sounds and on the development of hearing aids.

Hearing aid research brought Davis into frequent contact with Central Institute for the Deaf, which was a subcontractor to a Harvard project. In 1946 he accepted an offer to establish a Research Department at CID and also to join the WUSM Departments of Physiology and Otolaryngology.

Among his first major projects in St. Louis was measurement of effectiveness of fenestration operations pioneered by Theodore Walsh. Davis's use of speech in these hearing tests was the beginning of speech audiometry. He became a leading figure in the development of the first American standards for audiometers and the adoption of the international zero reference level as part of that standard. He continued research under several contracts with the U.S. Armed Forces, contributing to work in ultrasonics, mechanical shock, and other areas. In the 1960s he was a member of the National Research Council's Committee on SST (super-sonic transport) and Sonic Boom.

Hallowell Davis retired officially in 1965, but remained active as CID Director of Research Emeritus and Professor Emeritus of Otolaryngology. In 1976 he was awarded the National Medal of Science by President Gerald R. Ford. Davis died in 1992.

Gasser, Herbert S. (Herbert Spencer)

  • n89663704
  • Person
  • 1888-1963

Herbert S. Gasser (1888-1963) was a physiologist who received (jointly with Joseph Erlanger) the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1944. He served on the faculty at Washington University School of Medicine, 1916-1931. He earned a bachelor's degree (1910) and master's degree (1911) at the University of Wisconsin at Madison. He received his M.D. from Johns Hopkins University in 1915 and later served as a professor of physiology and director, 1935-1953 at the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research.

Gray, Samuel H.

  • n2004076373
  • Person
  • 1897-1949

Dr. Samuel H. Gray (1897-1949) was a pathologist at Jewish Hospital who was the longtime director of its laboratory and research division until his death in 1949. Gray also taught at Washington University School of Medicine as associate professor of pathology. He graduated from the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University (1923) and was a lieutenant commander in the U.S. Navy during WWII.

Source: St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 18 August 1949; Bulletin of the St. Louis Jewish Hospital Medical Staff, October 1949, page 39-41

Guze, Samuel B.

  • n83071391
  • Person
  • 1923-2000

Samuel B. Guze was born in New York City in 1923. He completed his undergraduate coursework at the City College of New York, and later attended Washington University School of Medicine, receiving his medical degree in 1945. Dr. Guze began his career at Washington University as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Medicine in 1953. In 1955, he also became an Assistant Professor of Psychiatry. Guze is best remembered as one of the founding fathers of the scientific approach to psychiatry. In the 1950s he propagated the view that psychiatric illness should be diagnosed just as any other physical illness through the use of a scientific model and a biological approach.

Guze's work also spawned great interest in the genetics of psychiatric disorders. He was among the first psychiatrists to use the study of twins as a way to investigate the role of heredity in mental illness. He and his colleagues produced key findings about genetic vulnerability to alcoholism and to other conditions such as schizophrenia and affective disorders. His research brought widespread recognition of the important role epidemiologic studies should play in psychiatric research. His views found general acceptance in 1980, when he helped to compile the American Psychiatric Association's standard DSM-III, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.

In addition to his scientific accomplishments, Guze is also recognized for the leadership abilities he demonstrated while holding several important administrative positions at Washington University. He served as the Assistant to the Dean from 1965 to 1971. He was appointed Vice Chancellor and President of the Washington University Medical Center in 1971, a position he held until 1989. Guze presided over the school during a time of rapid expansion and changes in medical care and research. Additionally, he was head of the Department of Psychiatry from 1975 to 1989, and again from 1993 to 1997. In all, he served on the faculty for almost 50 years. Guze passed away on July 19, 2000.

Hodgen, John T. (John Thompson)

  • n2006087065
  • Person
  • 1826-1882

John Thompson Hodgen (1826-1882) was born in Hodgenville, Kentucky. He attended Bethany College in West Virginia and studied at the medical department of the University of Missouri (later Missouri Medical College). After graduating from medical school in 1848, he served as Assistant Resident Physician of St. Louis City Hospital for a year. Dr. Hodgen then practiced with Dr. Joseph N. McDowell in St. Louis. He joined the faculty of Missouri Medical College, serving as Demonstrator of Anatomy (1849-1853), Chair of Anatomy (1854-1862), and Chair of Physiology (1858-1862).

During the Civil War, Dr. Hodgen was appointed to the rank of Surgeon General of the State of Missouri in 1862. When Dr. McDowell sided with the Confederacy, Dr. Hodgen transferred his allegiance to the St. Louis Medical College where he served as the Chair of Physiology (1862-1868) and Dean of the College (1865-1882). In addition to his administrative duties at the St. Louis Medical College, Dr. Hodgen also taught clinical surgery at City Hospital from 1864-1882 and was a surgeon at St. Luke's Hospital.

Dr. Hodgen was a member of the St. Louis Board of Health from 1867-1871, President of the St. Louis Medical Society in 1872, Chairman of the Surgical Section of the American Medical Association in 1873, president of the Missouri State Medical Association in 1874, a member of the International Medical Congress in 1876 and 1881, one of the founders of the American Surgical Association, and President of the American Medical Association in 1881.

Dr. Hodgen's literary work consisted largely in contributions to medical journals. He edited the chapters on injuries to the chest and injuries of the abdomen in the American edition of A System of Surgery edited by Timothy Holmes. Some of his papers were on the surgery of shock, nerve sections for neuralgia, fractures, and thigh and skin grafting. Among the many surgical appliances devised by him are a wire suspension splint, a cradle splint, a snare for the for the removal of urethral calculi, a surgeon's reel and artery forceps, and a simple siphon and stomach pump.

Howard, Harvey J.

  • no2003102744
  • Person
  • 1880-1956

Harvey J.Howard (1880-1956) was the first chair of the Department of Ophthalmology at Washington University School of Medicine. He graduated with his medical degree from the University of Pennsylvania in 1908 and in 1910, Howard headed to China to serve a five year term as head of the Ophthalmology Department in the University Medical School at Canton Christian College. Upon his return to the U.S., Howard studied ophthalmologic pathology, specializing in congenital abnormalities of the eye, at Harvard University on a Rockefeller Foundation Scholarship, and was elected to the American Ophthalmological Society in 1917 for his work.

During WWI, Howard briefly served as a captain in the U.S. Army, where he developed the Howard-Dolman depth perception test for aviators. After his military service, he returned to China in 1917 as the head of the Department of Ophthalmology at Union Medical College in Beijing, an appointment that lasted until 1927. During his decade in Beijing, Howard conducted research on epithelial cells and organized a teaching program in which he arranged for many prominent ophthalmologists to guest teach. He also served as the ophthalmologist to Pu Yi, the boy emperor in the Forbidden City, from 1921 to 1925. In 1926, he and his son, Jim, were kidnapped by Manchurian bandits and held for $100,000 ransom. They were held for ten weeks and despite the gang's threats, Howard and his son escaped largely due to his fluent Chinese and by treating the kidnappers" medical ailments. Upon his release, Howard wrote Ten Weeks with Chinese Bandits, an accounting of his adventures during his captivity. The publication was translated into seven languages and went through eight printings.

In 1927, he was contacted by Washington University School of Medicine asking him to serve as the first Chair of the Department of Ophthalmology. He accepted the position and was instrumental in the construction of a new building devoted to ophthalmology. At the medical school, Howard was responsible for the development of a resident training program in ophthalmology and conducted research on trachoma among the Indians and aviation medicine. In addition to his teaching duties, Howard served as the medical director for the Missouri Commission for the Blind from 1931 to 1948 and entered private practice in 1934.

International Society of Surgery

  • n80098182
  • Corporate body
  • 1902-

International Society of Surgery was founded 1902 in Brussels. Its headquarters are in Brussels.

Irene Walter Johnson Institute of Rehabilitation

  • 06814732‏
  • Corporate body
  • 1950-present

In 1950 Irene W. (Mrs. Oscar) Johnson donated $235,000 to Washington University for the establishment of a medical rehabilitation facility as a unit of the McMillan Hospital. In October 1959 the Irene Walter Johnson Institute of Rehabilitation opened at 509 S. Euclid Avenue, between the McMillan Hospital and the Washington University Clinics. Services of the Institute were coordinated through the Washington University School of Medicine’s Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.
Source: Women in the Health Sciences http://beckerexhibits.wustl.edu/mowihsp/win/Timeline/IWJInstitute.htm

King, M. Kenton (Morris Kenton)

  • n88097285
  • Person
  • 1924-2004

M. Kenton King (1924-2009) became the first full-time dean of Washington University School of Medicine in 1965, a position he retained until his retirement in 1989 and thereby making him one of the longest-serving Medical School deans in the United States. His tenure brought much acclaim to the School of Medicine both academically, with the recruitment of new heads in every department, and physically, with the addition of the McDonnell Medical Sciences Building, Clinical Sciences Research Building, Becker Medical Library, and the renovation of the East Building. King's leadership also affected the composition of the student body as his recruitment efforts brought more minority and female students to Washington University.

Born on November 13, 1924, in Oklahoma City, King began his undergraduate studies at the University of Oklahoma. World War II interrupted his academic pursuits when he joined the U.S. Navy in 1943. He participated in the Battle of Okinawa and attained the rank of lieutenant prior to his discharge in 1946. A year later, King earned his bachelor's degree from the University of Oklahoma and decided to attend Vanderbilt University's School of Medicine on the G.I. Bill. He graduated in 1951, ranked seventh in his class. King then completed an internship and a residency at Barnes Hospital in St. Louis, becoming chief resident in 1955. When his mentor, W. Barry Wood, transferred to Johns Hopkins University in 1955, King followed and completed a fellowship in microbiology. He returned to Washington University in 1957 as a member of the preventive medicine faculty and head of the Student Health Service.

King's administrative contributions to Washington University School of Medicine began as associate dean in 1961, until he was promoted to dean of the School of Medicine in 1965. In 1967, he also became the first Danforth Professor of Medicine and Public Health. King met his wife, June Greenfield King, at Barnes Hospital. A 1951 graduate of the Washington University School of Nursing, June was also the head nurse on a Barnes Hospital medical and surgical ward. After his retirement in 1989, King remained active in university affairs, organizing the School of Medicine's 100th anniversary celebration in 1991. King died on October 15, 2009.

Lacy, Paul E.

  • Person
  • 1924-2005

Paul E. Lacy was a professor emeritus of Washington University School of Medicine and a pioneer in the treatment of diabetes, having developed islet transplantation in the 1950s. He graduated from the Ohio State University with a B.S. in 1944 and a M.D. in 1948. Lacy completed graduate work in anatomy and experimental pathology at the Mayo Clinic and received a Ph.D. in the discipline from the University of Minnesota in 1955. In the same year, Washington University School of Medicine appointed him to be an assistant professor in the Department of Anatomy. It was during that time Lacy began his groundbreaking research of endocrine cells in the pancreas that led to the discovery and success of islet transplants as an experimental treatment for Type I diabetes mellitus throughout the 1970s and 1980s.

Due to his rising reputation for his research, Lacy was named the Edward Mallinckrodt Professor and chair of the Department of Pathology in 1961, which he held for 23 years until his retirement in 1984. Along with his work in medicine, Lacy was elected to the National Academy of Sciences and helped create the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation.

Lucille P. Markey Charitable Trust

  • n89638097
  • Corporate body

When Mrs. Markey died on July 24, 1982, the Lucille P. Markey Charitable Trust was incorporated as a Florida nonprofit organization with 501(c)(3) status. The initial meeting of the Board of Trustees occurred in October 1983, and the Trust's Miami office opened on January 1, 1984. The trust completed all activities on June 15, 1997) http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/n89638097

Ludmerer, Kenneth M.

  • n85074625
  • Person
  • Born 1947

Kenneth M. Ludmerer is a physician-historian who currently serves as the Mabel Dorn Reeder Distinguished Professor in the History of Medicine and professor of medicine at Washington University School of Medicine. He earned his medical degree and a master's degree in the history of medicine from Johns Hopkins University.

Mackie, Anita

  • n88260181
  • Person
  • 1930-

Anita Whitney Mackie is a former assistant professor of preventive medicine at Washington University School of Medicine who spent the majority of her career working on health services and agricultural issues in Africa. Born in Belfast, Northern Ireland IN 1930, Mackie holds degrees from McGill University (B. Sc. 1952), Cornell University (M.S., 1954), and Michigan State University (PH.D. Communications, 1962). She originally began her professional career as an agricultural economist in Nigeria for Stanford University and served on Nigerian relief in 1967-1968, but the Biafran War forced her return to the United States. At that point in 1970, she became a member of the Washington University School of Medicine faculty. At Washington University, Mackie acted as a liason between the medical center and the division of Health Care Research. She was assistant professor of Health care services in preventative medicine (communication). In the early 1970s, she was called back to Africa and spent the next two decades working with USAID and the Foreign Service in Chad. In her retirement years, Mackie has lived in Zimbabwe, South Africa, and the U.S.

Sources: curriculum vitae, 1970; Washington University School of Medicine catalog, 1970/71-1973/74

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