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Barbee, Andrew B.

  • Person
  • 1819-1896

Andrew B. "A.B." Barbee was a physician and surgeon who practiced in St. Louis. He graduated from Kemper Medical College in 1843 and authored a history of Missouri Medical college from 1840 to 1861, published in 1914.

Lacy, Paul E.

  • Person
  • 1924-2005

Paul E. Lacy was a professor emeritus of Washington University School of Medicine and a pioneer in the treatment of diabetes, having developed islet transplantation in the 1950s. He graduated from the Ohio State University with a B.S. in 1944 and a M.D. in 1948. Lacy completed graduate work in anatomy and experimental pathology at the Mayo Clinic and received a Ph.D. in the discipline from the University of Minnesota in 1955. In the same year, Washington University School of Medicine appointed him to be an assistant professor in the Department of Anatomy. It was during that time Lacy began his groundbreaking research of endocrine cells in the pancreas that led to the discovery and success of islet transplants as an experimental treatment for Type I diabetes mellitus throughout the 1970s and 1980s.

Due to his rising reputation for his research, Lacy was named the Edward Mallinckrodt Professor and chair of the Department of Pathology in 1961, which he held for 23 years until his retirement in 1984. Along with his work in medicine, Lacy was elected to the National Academy of Sciences and helped create the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation.

Hartroft, W. Stanley

  • Person
  • 1916-1981

Walter Stanley Hartroft earned B.Sc. in Medicine, University of Alberta, 1941 and an M.D. (1941) and Ph.D. (1950) at the University of Toronto. "W. Stanley Hartroft, M.D., Ph.D, F.R.C.P. spent his early years in the Banting and Best Department of Medical Research at the University of Toronto (1946- 1954), moved to Washington University in St. Louis as Mallinckrodt Professor and Chairman of the Department of Pathology (1954-1961), went back to Toronto to head The Research Institute of the Hospital for Sick Children (1961- 1970), and moved finally to the John A. Burns School of Medicine at the University of Hawaii...

During his time at Banting and Best Department, he took [on] a young graduate student from Detroit, Phyllis Merritt, who worked on the effect of salt and DOCA on the renal juxtaglomerular cells; he and Phyllis were married in1950.

In 1954 Stanley went to Washington University, and with enormous enthusiasm devoted himself to the development of the Department of Pathology, especially the experimental approach to the study of disease. Statistics, animal care, diet preparation, histochemistry, photomicroscopy, and electron microscopy flourished. Stanley and Phyllis worked until late into the night. Residents began participating in the experimental program. Funding of research was obtained, new equipment was purchased, and much of the department space was renovated. He continued his collaboration with Phyllis on J G cells, but also worked with W. A. Thomas, K. T. Lee, and me, and with J. S. Meyer, R. C. Ahlvin, B. B. Banson, J. W. Grisham, P. E. Lacy, E. A. Porta, M. Suzuki, W. J. S. Still, L. Recant, A. Mikata, and A. A. Dimakulangan. Hartroft’s faith in the experimental approach was exceeded only by his fear of bias, which he tried constantly to avoid. In 1961, in an argument with the administration over the need to develop a residency program in clinical pathology, utilizing the clinical laboratories of Barnes Hospi- tal, he resigned and left to head the Research Institute of the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto.
ROBERT M. O’NEAL, M.D., Memoir: W. Stanley Hartroft, M.D., Ph.D. 1916-1981, EXPERIMENTAL AND MOLECULAR PATHOLOGY 1982 Feb;36(1):132-4. doi: 10.1016/0014-4800(82)90087-9

Greider, Marie H.

  • Person
  • 1922-2015

Marie Helen Greider, one of the pioneering researchers of DNA died on August 10, 2015. She defended her doctoral dissertation on the effect of deoxyribonuclease on deoxyribonucleic acid less than seven years after Watson and Crick's initial paper was published in the journal Nature to which she remained a subscriber until her death. Marie Helen Greider was born 15 January 1922 in Newark, Ohio, the youngest of five children in the family of Clara Bertha (Dair) and Earl F. Greider. She died in Newark, Ohio in 2015. She graduated from Ohio State University with three degrees in Zoology: B.Sc. 1949; in Biology; M.S., 1955 in Cytology; Ph.D., 1960 in Cytology. She was 93.

Marie focused her professional career on searches for cures for diseases of the kidney, pancreas, joints and digestive system such as hepatitis, Hodgkin's, arthritis, diabetes and dermatitis. Academic, publishing and research credits are too numerous to cite.

Her career was centered on research and teaching at The Ohio State University and Washington University School of Medicine—from which she retired as Professor of Pathology and Vice-Chairman of the Pathology Department. In addition, Marie lectured widely at professional conferences around the world. Onto these trips she always tacked an outdoor adventure bringing back slides and later movies of wild animals and exotic - and usually remote - scenery.

During her years of research, she made significant discoveries that contributed to treatments for many of these diseases. She was one of the first to use an electron microscope to study cell structure and in 1966 wrote the definitive book on its use.

Marie Greider was Assistant Professor of Pathology in the Department of Pathology at Washington University by 1968. By the academic year 1984-85, she was Professor of Pathology. Both she and Phyllis M. Hartroft were experimental pathologists at Washington University and shared a household and many research projects particularly those at Tyson Research Center on the effect of pollution on animals.

Sources: Dr. Marie Helen Greider, Newark Advocate, Published in the Advocate on Aug. 14 to Aug. 16, 2015. https://www.legacy.com/obituaries/newarkadvocate/obituary.aspx?n=marie-helen-greider&pid=175495700&fhid=8653

Hartroft, Phyllis M.

  • Person
  • 1928-2014

Phyllis Merritt was born February 1, 1928 in Detroit, Mich., the daughter of Dr. Earl Merritt and Jacqueline Merritt. She earned a bachelor's degree at the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor in 1949. In her senior year, she began studies of the physiology of blood pressure with her mentor, Dr. David Bohr. Phyllis Hartroft became Phyllis Merritt Hartroft when she married W. Stanley Hartroft in 1950. She continued blood pressure studies especially the effect of salt and DOCA on the renal juxtaglomerular cells, at the University of Toronto under W. Stanley Hartroft and earned an M.A. in 1951 and a Ph.D. in 1954.

She continued to work on the physiology of blood pressure with Hartroft at Department of Pathology, Washington University School of Medicine, where they moved in 1954. They published the first of numerous pa­pers on the physiology of the kidney and high blood pressure in 1953. Although they later divorced Phyllis Har­troft credited him with having a profound influence on her career.

Much of the blood pressure work for which she was acclaimed was done at Washington University between 1954-61 when she was a member of the medical school fac­ulty for the first of two intervals. She moved quickly up the ladder from research assistant in 1955 to research assistant professor in 1961. He was professor of pathology and chair of the department of pathology. Subse­quently, she was associated with the Re­search Institute of The Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto and then the Indi­ana University faculty.

In 1966, she re­tumed to the Department of Pathology, Washington University School of Medicine to continue her investigation of the physiology of blood pressure and its effect on the kidneys at Tyson Research Center. In 1970, Dorothy Brockhoff interviewed her at Tyson as she worked, about current blood pressure studies and a new study of the effects of pollution on animals at the Tyson research center with Marshall Kuhn III. In 1975, Dorothy Brockoff featured Phyllis Hartroft at Tyson with Marie Greider, her friend and colleague, at Tyson research Center. The focus was a the environmental study of the effects of pollution on animals. Department chair Paul E. Lacy and students in her group are featured.

She retired in 1985 from Washington University and moved to Licking County, Ohio with her friend and fellow WUSM pathologist, Marie H. Greider. Throughout her professional career, she taught and conducted research on the endocrine system, kidney function and hypertension. She died in 2014.

Source: Brockhoff, Dorothy, Pastoral Pathologist, Washington University Magazine, Summer 1975, page 1-7 (with photos page 1-2) & Dr. Phyllis Merritt Hartroft, Newark Advocate, Published in the Advocate on Sept. 23, 2014, https://www.legacy.com/obituaries/newarkadvocate/obituary.aspx?n=phyllis-merritt-hartroft&pid=172538658&fhid=8653

Kuhn, Charles, III

  • Person
  • 1933-2003

Charles Kuhn III earned a bachelor's degree at Harvard University in 1955 and his MD in the Washington University School of Medicine class of 1959. He collaborated with Stanley W. and Phyllis M. Hartroft in a number of papers on the Physiology of hypertension and its effects on the kidney, beginning in 1961. He served his residency at Barnes Hospital and was chief resident in pathology for the 1961-1962 year. By 1971, Dr. Phyllis Hartroft and her co-investigator, Dr. Charles Kuhn, III, assistant professor of pathology, in association with the School of Engineering, had ap­plied for a major grant to study the effects of a continu­ous mixture of air pollutants on animals suffering from various diseases. They proposed to carry out this re­ search in two Tyson bunkers equipped with controls which will prevent the polluted ail' from contaminating the Tyson environment. In their work, Doctors Hartroft and Kuhn planned to use dif­ferent types of animals, including rats, mice, and dogs.

This study on environmental hazards and chronic disease was presented at a conference in 1975 and published in a conference publication cited below. Kuhn climbed the academic ladder at the department of pathology, Washington University School of Medicine and was full professor by 1985. He moved to Brown University at Providence RI sometime after 1984 and died as Professor Emeritus at Brown at the age of 69 in 2002.

Cori, Carl F.

  • Person
  • 1896-1984

Carl Ferdinand Cori was born in 1896 in Prague (then located in the Austro-Hungarian Empire), the son of a noted Austrian biologist. Cori began medical study in his native city, but this was interrupted by military service in World War I, during which he served as a medic on the Italian front. While a student again after the war, he became engaged to a classmate, Gerty Theresa Radnitz. The two were married in Vienna in 1920 shortly after receiving their medical degrees. Both chose research careers, but it proved very difficult to find suitable positions in war-impoverished Austria. In 1922, the Coris emigrated to the United States, where Carl took a position in Buffalo, at the State Institute for the Study of Malignant Disease (now Roswell Park Memorial Institute).

In 1931, Cori was appointed professor and chairman of the Department of Pharmacology at the Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. He would later switch departments and become professor and chair of the department of Biochemistry in 1946. Working with his wife Gerty, the Coris most notable contribution to science was their series of discoveries that elucidated the pathway of glycogen breakdown in animal cells and the enzymic basis of its regulation, now known as the Cori Cycle.

Cori, Gerty T.

  • Person
  • 1896-1957

Gerty Cori, the first American woman to win the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, was born in Prague, then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, in 1896. Educated by tutors and in private schools, Gerty decided at the age of 16 to study medicine. She entered the Realgymnasium at Tetschen, from which she graduated in 1914, and then proceeded to the Medical School of the German University of Prague. While in medical school, Gerty met Carl Ferdinand Cori, a fellow student who shared both her loves of skiing and mountain climbing and her interest in laboratory research. In 1920 the two published the results of their first research collaboration, received their medical degrees, and married each other.

Gerty Cori's first research position was as an assistant in the Karolinen Children's Hospital in Vienna. In 1922 Carl Cori emigrated to the United States to join the staff of the New York State Institute for the Study of Malignant Diseases in Buffalo, New York. Gerty Cori emigrated a few months later, starting as an assistant pathologist at the Institute and later rising to assistant biochemist. In 1928 the Coris became naturalized U.S. citizens.

In 1931 Carl Cori accepted the position of chairman of the Department of Pharmacology of the Washington University School of Medicine. The University rules at the time prohibited faculty appointment of two members of the same family, so Gerty Cori was hired as a research fellow in Pharmacology. In the early 1940s the Coris moved to the department of Biological Chemistry. Gerty Cori was made an associate professor of Research Biological Chemistry and Pharmacology in 1943. She was promoted to the rank of professor of Biological Chemistry in July 1947.

In addition to the Nobel Prize in 1947, Gerty Cori was the recipient of many honors and awards. With her husband she was awarded the Midwest Award of the American Chemical Society in 1946. Gerty Cori received the St. Louis Award in 1948, the Squibb Award in endocrinology in 1947, and Garvan medal of the American Chemical Society for women in chemistry in 1948, and the sugar research prize of the National Academy of Sciences in 1950. In 1948 Cori was recognized as a Woman of Achievement in science by the Women's National Press Club. In addition, President Truman appointed Gerty Cori to two terms as a member of the board of the National Science Foundation. Honorary degrees were awarded to Cori by Yale University, Boston University, Smith College, Columbia University, and the University of Rochester. The American Chemical Society designated the research of Gerty and Carl Cori on the metabolism of carbohydrates at The Washington University School of Medicine a National Historic Chemical Landmark on September 21, 2004.

In 1947 Gerty Cori began displaying the symptoms of myelofibrosis, a rare blood disease that affects the bone marrow. She fought the disease for 10 years, refusing to give up her research until the last few months of her life. Cori died on October 26, 1957.

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