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International Society of Surgery was founded 1902 in Brussels. Its headquarters are in Brussels.
Adele Croninger was a geologist best known for her work in cancer research on the studies of smoking habits and lung cancer rates under the guidance of Ernst Wynder and Evarts Graham at Washington University School of Medicine. Croninger initially recieved a master's degree in geology from the university in 1948, but she opted to embark in cancer research at the medical school after graduation. She and Betty G. Proctor conducted the interviews for the study, which was released in 1950 to widespread publicity. Due to controversial evidence in the study, Wynder and Graham decided to develop a follow-up study using cigarette tar on laboratory mice. Croninger was again hired to assist in the second study and proved herself to be such an adept worker that she was named as a co-author when the study was published in five parts between 1953 and 1958, immediately becoming a historical turning point for its linkage of cigarette smoking to lung cancer.
Dr. Samuel H. Gray (1897-1949) was a pathologist at Jewish Hospital who was the longtime director of its laboratory and research division until his death in 1949. Gray also taught at Washington University School of Medicine as associate professor of pathology. He graduated from the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University (1923) and was a lieutenant commander in the U.S. Navy during WWII.
Source: St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 18 August 1949; Bulletin of the St. Louis Jewish Hospital Medical Staff, October 1949, page 39-41
- Born 1938
Gerald D. Fischbach is a neuroscientist who began his research career at the National Institutes of Health, and has taught at Harvard Medical School (1972-1981) and Washington University School of Medicine (1981-1990), and Columbia University (2001-2006). He has served as the director of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke from 1998 to 2001, and currently acts as the scientific director of the Simons Foundation Autism Research Initiative. His research focuses on the formation and function of the neuromuscular junction, using cell culture to study synaptic mechanisms. Fischbach received his medical degree from Cornell University in 1965.
Fischbach is married to Ruth L. Fischbach, who currently serves as a Professor of Bioethics in Psychiatry at Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center. They have four children.
Ruth L. Fischbach, Ph.D., was research assistant professor of sociology in psychiatry at the Washington University School of Medicine in 1989.
Dr. Fischbach attended Mount Holyoke College, received R.N. and B.S. degrees from Cornell University-New York Hospital School of Nursing, an M.S. and Ph.D. from Boston University, and an MPE from Washington University. She recently completed a fellowship in neuroethics at the University of Pennsylvania.
Washington University Record, January 26, 1989, page 2. https://digitalcommons.wustl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1466&context=record
Alexis F. Hartmann Sr. (1898-1964), a native St. Louisan, spent his entire career at Washington University, earning a bachelor's degree in 1919, master's and medical degrees in 1921 and later heading the School of Medicine's department of pediatrics from 1936-1964. Hartmann also was physician-in-chief of St. Louis Children's Hospital, where he oversaw the hospital's racial integration in 1950.
Hartmann's contributions in medicine include the development of a technique to measure sugar in patients' blood during medical school, which was a significant step towards the discovery of insulin by Canadian scientists. Due to this experience working with diabetic children, Hartmann developed a lifelong interest in the disease. In 1921, he co-wrote a paper with Philip Schaffer on the Schaffer-Hartmann Method for true blood glucose analysis. Hartmann also created a fluid and electrolyte replacement therapy for infants universally known as Lactated Ringer's solution, or Hartmann's Solution. His research led to the 1932 publication of two studies that showed differences in serum electrolyte patterns in dehydration and described the use of the solution to treat acidosis in children. According to a former colleague, Hartmann had great influence on Carl and Gerty Cori by recommending that they study glucose-6-phosphatase in glycogen storage disease. The Coris' groundbreaking work eventually earned them a Nobel Prize. Throughout his career, Hartmann was honored with awards such as the Gill Prize in Pediatrics in 1921 and the first Abraham Jacobi Award from the American Medical Association's Section on Pediatrics.
Carlton C. Hunt (1918-2008) was a professor of physiology who was the first researcher to describe the efferent innervation of mammalian muscle. He taught at numerous universities and was the head of the department of physiology at the Albert Einstein School of Medicine (1955-1957), University of Utah School of Medicine (1957-1964), Yale School of Medicine (1964-1967), and Washington University School of Medicine (1967-1983). In his retirement, Hunt spent four years researching at the College de France in Paris and was elected to the National Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2007. He earned a BA at Columbia University in 1939 and MD at Cornell University in 1942.
Williams McKim Marriott was a pediatrician who was considered as one of the greatest influences in the field of pediatrics during the first half of the 20th century. Marriott was born in Baltimore on March 5, 1885 and was educated at Marston's School for Boys, University of North Carolina, and Cornell Medical School. He first came to Washington University as an instructor in biological chemistry in 1910, but he soon resigned four years later to join the Department of Pediatrics at Johns Hopkins University.
In 1917, Washington University hired him again to become a professor of pediatrics and physician-in-chief for St. Louis Children's Hospital. Marriott later became the dean of the School of Medicine in 1923, which he served until his resignation in July 1936 to become the dean and professor of research medicine at University of California School of Medicine. He died on November 11, 1936 in San Francisco. Amongst his contributions to medicine are Recent Advances in Chemistry in Relation to Medical Practice (1928) and Infant Nutrition (1930).
Robert A. Moore was the dean (1946-1954) and head of pathology (1939-1954) at Washington University School of Medicine. Under Moore's leadership, he was a factor in the change of the financing of medical research and education due to the federal government becoming a valuable source of grants for training, research, and improvement of medical facilities. Also, he was the first dean to invite African-American physicians to join the attending staff in 1949. Along with his administrative duties, Moore was a well-regarded figure in the field of pathology, having authored a popular textbook on the subject.