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Authority record

Herweg, John C.

  • Person
  • 1922-2018

John C. Herweg (1922-2018) was the former Associate Dean for Student Affairs at Washington University School of Medicine who served in that role from 1965 to 1990. He also served as the chairman of the committee on admissions and as an advisor to medical students. As associate dean, Herweg guided student affairs through new channels, including active recruitment of minority students, providing support for the increasing number of women seeking a career in medicine, and steady direction during student protests.

Herweg earned his undergraduate degree from Drury College in Springfield, MO, and his medical degree from Washington University in 1945. He served a year-long internship at St. Louis Children's Hospital before serving as a captain in the U.S. Army Medical Corps from 1946 to 1948. Herweg returned to Children's Hospital as the chief resident after his military service.

In 1951, he joined the faculty at the School of Medicine as an instructor in pediatrics. Herweg was promoted to assistant professor in 1953 . From 1960 to 1962, he was a U.S. Public Health Post-Doctoral Fellow and assistant professor of microbiology at University of Minnesota School of Medicine. Upon his return to St. Louis in 1962, Herweg became the director of the Clinical Research Unit at St. Louis Children’s Hospital until 1970. During that period, he was promoted to associate professor of pediatrics in 1963 and later full professor in 1972.

Throughout his career, Herweg was active in the medical community. He served as chairman of the Central Region's Group on Student Affairs (GSA) of the Association of American Medical Colleges, vice-chairman of the National GSA, and chairman of the committee on admissions for the "13 Medical School Consortium." In the local medical organizations, Herweg served as the secretary-treasurer of the St. Louis Pediatric Society, and president of the St. Louis Children's Hospital Staff Society.

Curtman, Charles O.

  • 2014165141
  • Person
  • 1829-1896

Charles O. Curtman was born Karl Otto Curtman in Giessen, Germany and was a medical graduate of the university in his native city, where he was a student of Justus von Liebig. After working in Antwerp, Belgium as an industrial chemist, he emigrated to the United States and settled in New Orleans in 1850. When the Civil War began he was commissioned as a medical officer in a Confederate cavalry unit, but soon thereafter was assigned to direct the manufacture of medicines and explosives at army laboratories. After the war he practiced medicine in Memphis and from there was recruited to join the faculty of Missouri Medical College in St. Louis. He was Professor of Chemistry at the College from 1868 until 1874 and again from 1883 until his death.

Curtman also taught at the St. Louis College of Pharmacy (the two colleges maintained an informal affiliation) and was on the staff of the Mallinckrodt Chemical Works in the city. Too early to be considered a "biochemist," he was nonetheless a significant local pioneer in investigating and teaching laboratory science to medical and pharmacy students. He was the author of three laboratory manuals and numerous journal reviews of current scientific developments. At the very end of his life, he was among the first in St. Louis to investigate applications for the newly discovered principles of x-ray technology.

Engelmann, George J.

  • Person
  • 1847-1903

George J. Engelmann (1847-1903) was a St. Louis native who worked as an obstetrician and gynecologist. He was the son of the famed botanist, George Engelmann, who had settled in St. Louis after emigrating from Germany. Engelmann graduated from Washington University in St. Louis in 1867 and continued his studies abroad in Europe in Berlin, Tubingen, Vienna, and Paris. During his time overseas, he volunteered as a surgeon in the Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871).

Engelmann returned to the United States in 1873 and subsequently became a professor of gynecology at the St. Louis Post-Graduate School of Medicine, where he chaired the study of operative midwifery and female diseases. He was a founding member of the American Gynecological Society. His contributions to medicine include articles such as The use of electricity in gynecological practice (1886), History of obstetrics (1888), and Fundamental principles of gynecological electro-therapy; application and dosage (1891). In his free time, Engelmann devoted his interests to archaeology, having worked on sites throughout southern Missouri and exchanged specimens with museums in Europe and the United States.

Goldman, Alfred, 1895-1973

  • Person
  • 1895-1973

Alfred Goldman, born in St. Louis on October 6, 1895, attended public schools in the city and won a scholarship to Washington University where he received three degrees: an A.B. in 1916, an M.S. in physiology in 1922, and an M.D. in 1920. An excellent scholar, he was elected to Phi Beta Kappa and Alpha Omega Alpha. Medicine fascinated him as an intellectual pursuit and as a means to help others. He also was a sports enthusiast and enjoyed vigorous athletic activity, playing varsity basketball in college and remaining physically active throughout his life. Bowling, golf and fishing were his favorite diversions.

His medical career was spent entirely in St. Louis as a physician in private practice and at the Washington University School of Medicine as Professor of Clinical Medicine, and Director of Medical Chest Service. Goldman is remembered as an extraordinarily skillful physician and colleague. Students appreciated his effectiveness in imparting clinical skills during their rotations with him. He retained close attachments to many associates from the early years of his career until the end of his life.

The spirit of critical inquiry characterizing his professional career came in part from a rigorous training in physiology. His research always reflected a depth of interest in the patient and his drive for scholarship of the highest quality. His earliest scientific discovery dispelled myths about the effect of chilling on the development of upper respiratory disease. As a medical student, Goldman participated in experiments on chilling with his classmates, Stuart Mudd and Samuel Grant. Their findings proved that exposure to cold produced vaso-constriction in the mucous membranes of the nose and throat, a significant fact in treating diseases of the respiratory tract and one quoted widely in the literature.

The work on chilling had a larger impact because it led to the earliest definitive studies of acid-base changes during hyperventilation. During chilling, the investigators exposed themselves unclothed to temperatures of 4 degrees celsius, and in this situation, hyperventilation occurred regularly. Goldman observed that the reaction of his urine always was alkaline following chilling. Although some effects of hyperventilation were known previously, the physiology of tetany due to hyperventilation was completely unknown. Tetany, the hyperexitability of nerves and muscles, is now known to be due to a decrease in concentration of extracellular ionized calcium. Goldman and Grant used a metronome to pace breathing frequency to induce marked alkalosis, and on several occasions, Goldman hyperventilated to the point of generalized tetany. The two worked out physiological alterations accompanying the marked loss of carbon dioxide and realized that a decrease in ionized calcium likely produced the tetany although technical difficulties precluded measurement of ionized calcium.

With his deep understanding of hyperventilation, it is not surprising that Goldman was the first to recognize hysterical hyperventilation and tetany in patients. His clinical description was published in the Journal of the American Medical Association in 1922. Goldman applied the appropriate therapy to some of the earliest patients recognized. This therapy, simple rebreathing into a closed container such as a paper bag, continues to be the preferred therapy for hysterical hyperventilation.

Goldman also investigated pulmonary arteriovenous fistulas. He was the first to recognize the relationship of this disorder to the Rendu-Osler-Weber type of familial arteriovenous fistulas.

The effects of environmental inhalant upon the lung attracted Goldman's attention and he wrote an important paper on sulfric-acid fume poisoning. In addition, he was one of the earliest workers to recognize pneumonconiosis in the tungsten carbide industry, and suggested that the principal offending agent in this type of pulmonary fibrosis was cobalt, a suggestion since confirmed by other workers. He served as consultant physician to Koch Hospital in St. Louis at the time of earliest drug therapy in tuberculosis and was responsible for inclusion of many St. Louis patients in the drug trials. He was given Viomycin by the Pfizer Company in 1949 and realized its effectiveness. Recognizing one of the earliest examples of sedormid purpura, he reported the incident to the pharmaceutical firm and was advised that it probably was coincidence and not worth publishing. Within a year, however, there were at least a dozen reports in the literature documenting similar toxicity to the drug, and he regretted not publishing his early report.

Goldman took an active role in the American College of Chest Physicians, serving as president during 1964-65; presenting papers and participating in symposia in many states and abroad, including Austria, Switzerland, Ireland, Thailand, Hong Kong, Japan, Hawaii, Mexico, and Central America. He died on November 25, 1973.

*From a memorial article by John A. Pierce, M.D, March, 1974 (modified for the finding aid, 2005).

Mudd, H. H. (Henry Hodgen)

  • n2017189958
  • Person
  • 1844-1899

Henry Hodgen Mudd received his medical degree from St. Louis Medical College in 1866. He spent 18 years demonstrating and teaching anatomy at St. Louis Medical College, then served as dean of the faculty from 1896 until his death.

Hodgen, John T. (John Thompson)

  • n2006087065
  • Person
  • 1826-1882

John Thompson Hodgen (1826-1882) was born in Hodgenville, Kentucky. He attended Bethany College in West Virginia and studied at the medical department of the University of Missouri (later Missouri Medical College). After graduating from medical school in 1848, he served as Assistant Resident Physician of St. Louis City Hospital for a year. Dr. Hodgen then practiced with Dr. Joseph N. McDowell in St. Louis. He joined the faculty of Missouri Medical College, serving as Demonstrator of Anatomy (1849-1853), Chair of Anatomy (1854-1862), and Chair of Physiology (1858-1862).

During the Civil War, Dr. Hodgen was appointed to the rank of Surgeon General of the State of Missouri in 1862. When Dr. McDowell sided with the Confederacy, Dr. Hodgen transferred his allegiance to the St. Louis Medical College where he served as the Chair of Physiology (1862-1868) and Dean of the College (1865-1882). In addition to his administrative duties at the St. Louis Medical College, Dr. Hodgen also taught clinical surgery at City Hospital from 1864-1882 and was a surgeon at St. Luke's Hospital.

Dr. Hodgen was a member of the St. Louis Board of Health from 1867-1871, President of the St. Louis Medical Society in 1872, Chairman of the Surgical Section of the American Medical Association in 1873, president of the Missouri State Medical Association in 1874, a member of the International Medical Congress in 1876 and 1881, one of the founders of the American Surgical Association, and President of the American Medical Association in 1881.

Dr. Hodgen's literary work consisted largely in contributions to medical journals. He edited the chapters on injuries to the chest and injuries of the abdomen in the American edition of A System of Surgery edited by Timothy Holmes. Some of his papers were on the surgery of shock, nerve sections for neuralgia, fractures, and thigh and skin grafting. Among the many surgical appliances devised by him are a wire suspension splint, a cradle splint, a snare for the for the removal of urethral calculi, a surgeon's reel and artery forceps, and a simple siphon and stomach pump.

Kirchner, Walter C. G.

  • Person
  • 1875-?

Walter C.G. Kirchner was a physician and member of the St. Louis-based family of doctors, the Kirchner family, who played a significant role in the founding of the St. Louis College of Pharmacy. Kirchner obtained his A.B. and AT.D. from Washington University in St. Louis in 1897 and 1901 respectively. He spent his early medical career at City Hospital, where he rose through the ranks to become superintendent and surgeon in charge. During World War I, Kirchner was unable to serve active duty, but he became a major in the American Expeditionary Force in France, and was a member of the St. Louis Officers Medical Reserve Corps. In addition to his work at St. Louis area hospitals, Kirchner was an assistant bacteriologist for the city's health department and an instructor in bacteriology at Washington University School of Medicine.

McPheeters, William M.

  • Person
  • 1815-1905

William M. McPheeters was a physician who practiced in St. Louis after obtaining his medical degree in Philadelphia. During the Civil War, his family was among the numerous St. Louis families who sympathized with the South, so they were forced to pay fines that would be used for the relief of refugees. McPheeters refused to take an oath of loyalty to the Union, so he left his family and practice to offer his medical expertise to the Confederacy in Richmond, VA in 1862. He was appointed as the medical director for General Price's army in Tupelo, Mississippi. After the war, McPheeters returned to St. Louis to resume his practice. He remained in St. Louis for the rest of his life, serving as editor and contributor to the St. Louis Medical and Surgical Journal.

Edwards, Joseph C.

  • Person
  • 1909-1994

Joseph C. Edwards was a St. Louis cardiologist and world-renowned expert on high blood pressure. He practiced in St. Louis for over 50 years, and is best known for his 1960 book, Management of Hypertensive Diseases, which became a popular reference text for doctors in the country.

Edwards received his degrees from the University of Oklahoma and Harvard University Medical School (1934), and later worked with Paul Dudley White at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston. In 1939, Washington University hired Edwards as the Eli Lilly Fellow in Pneumonia, which began his medical career in St. Louis. He reached the rank of assistant professor of clinical medicine, which he served as until 1960. During WWII, Edwards was the chief of cardiovascular medicine at the 21st General Hospital in Rouen, France, for which he received a Legion of Merit due to his superior work in soldier care and clinical research.

In addition to his role at Washington University School of Medicine, Edwards was a director for the High Blood Pressure Clinic at St. Luke's Hospital, president of the St. Louis Medical Society, and a fellow of the Royal Society of Medicine. He passed away in 1994.

Scott, Gordon H. (Gordon Hatler)

  • no2008107196
  • Person
  • 1901-1970

Gordon Hatler Scott (1901-1970) was born in Winfield, Kansas on April 10, 1901. He received his Ph.D. in anatomy at the University of Minnesota in 1926. Upon graduation, Scott worked at Loyola University in Chicago as an Assistant Professor of Anatomy for two years. He then moved to New York City to assist E.V. Cowdry with cytological studies of malaria at the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research.

When Cowdry was selected to be the head of the cytology program at Washington University in 1928, Scott followed Cowdry and was appointed Assistant Professor of Cytology at Washington University. Scott held this position until 1931, when he was promoted to Associate Professor of Cytology (1931-1941), and later Associate Professor of Histology (1941-1942). Scott researched medical physics and developed many physical methods of study for biology. He is credited with creating the nation's first electron microscope, which is now located in the Bernard Becker Medical Library.

Scott left Washington University to become the head of the anatomy department at the University of Southern California. In 1945 he became the Chairman of the Department of Anatomy at Wayne State University. He was promoted to Dean of the School of Medicine in 1950, where he pushed to increase enrollment and oversaw a significant expansion of the school's facilities.

Dr. Scott held a number of administrative positions in professional organizations and he was presented with several honors throughout his career. He was a member of the White House Conference on Child Health and Protection in 1930, served as vice president of the American Association of Medical Colleges in 1957, and was a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Kerr, David N.

  • Person
  • 1916-1978

David Nafe Kerr (1916-1978) graduated from Washington University School of Medicine in 1941. Upon graduation he joined the US Army General Hospital 21 unit, which was drawn in large part from the medical staff of Washington University and Barnes Hospital. Dr. Kerr was stationed with the unit at Fort Benning, Georgia in January 1942. He served as a medical officer in northern Africa, Italy, and France between 1942-1946. Despite his noncombatant status as a physician, Dr. Kerr was awarded the Silver Star in 1944 "for gallantry in action."

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