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Authority record

Cullen, William, 1710-1790

  • n84806711
  • Person
  • 1710-1790

William Cullen was a Scottish physician and professor of medicine, best known for his innovative teaching methods amd forceful inspiring lectures, which drew medical students to Edinburgh from throughout the English-speaking world. During the period of these lectures, he was at the University of Edinburgh. A more detailed biographical sketch may be found at "William Cullen." Encyclopaedia Britannica Online Academic Edition. Encyclopaedia Britannica Inc., 2013. Web. 04 Sep. 2013.

Goldstein, Max A.

  • n83227239
  • Person
  • 1870-1941

Max A. Goldstein (1870-1941) was born in St. Louis and received his medical degree in 1892 from the Missouri Medical College, a precursor institution to Washington University School of Medicine. After an internship at St. Louis City Hospital, Dr. Goldstein traveled to Berlin, Strasbourg, London and Vienna as part of a grand tour to complete his medical training. His interest in otology, a new and promising field, led him to the internationally renowned Vienna Polyclinic to study with Dr. Adam Politzer (1835-1920), "father of modern otology." While in Vienna, Dr. Goldstein heard a series of lectures presented by Dr. Victor Urbantschitsch (1847-1921), a proponent of aural training for congenitally deaf children, and observed how deaf children could be taught speech by using acoustic training methods to stimulate dormant auditory senses.

Dr. Goldstein returned to St. Louis in 1895 to establish his medical practice. Within a year, Goldstein was appointed chair of Otology at Beaumont Medical College, an appointment that continued until 1912. In 1896 Goldstein founded a new medical journal, The Laryngoscope; he served as its editor from its first issue until his death in 1941. At the behest of Dr. Victor Urbantschitsch, Goldstein began teaching a class of sixteen girls at the St. Joseph's Institute for the Deaf using the Urbantschitsch acoustic training methods and provided instruction for teachers on how to apply these methods. These teaching sessions for deaf children and teachers of the deaf led to the idea of establishing an institute for the deaf in which an effective cooperation between teachers, otologists, and other specialties would develop. In 1914, Dr. Goldstein founded Central Institute for the Deaf (CID) in the rooms above his medical office. The first class consisted of four children and within two years construction began on a new separate school building.

By 1930, CID expanded to include a clinic for rehabilitation of deaf adults and research laboratories where scientists were recruited world-wide to study deafness. The teacher training program was affiliated with Washington University in 1931, the first deaf education program in the country affiliated with a university. Dr. Goldstein was made professor of research otology and speech pathology at Washington University that same year. He remained director of CID and professor until his death in 1941. By the time of Goldstein's death, CID had established an international reputation, with an enrollment of 300 students from the U.S. and several foreign countries.

Dr. Goldstein was also an avid collector of mechanical hearing devices including the first models of commercially made devices. The CID-Goldstein Historic Devices for Hearing Collection contains over 400 hearing devices dating from 1796 and represents one of the largest collections in the world. Associated with the collection is archival material dating from the 19th century including patents, photographic prints, catalog illustrations, advertisements, and related ephemera. In addition to collecting hearing devices, Dr. Goldstein collected rare books dealing with communication and disorders of the ear, nose and throat. The CID-Goldstein Collection in Speech and Hearing contains over 700 rare books on the fields of otology, deaf education and speech defects. Both collections are housed at Bernard Becker Medical Library.

Among his many achievements was the founding of The Society of Progressive Oral Advocates in 1918, an organization devoted to oral education of the deaf, and serving as editor of Oralism and Auralism, its official publication. He also founded the St. Louis League of Hard of Hearing, now known as the St. Louis Hearing-Speech Center. Dr. Goldstein was awarded the Gold Medal by the American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society in recognition of his work in the education of the deafened child, the St. Louis Award for his great contributions to humanity, and an honorary LLD degree from Washington University. Dr. Goldstein passed away in July 1941 at the age of 71.

Queeny, Edgar M.

  • n83020854
  • Person
  • 1897-1968

Edgar Monsanto Queeny was an American industrialist. He was the son of Olga Mendez Monsanto and John Francis Queeny, the founder of Monsanto. He followed his father as chairman of the Monsanto corporation from 1928 until his retirement in 1960. He then became the chair of the board of trustees of Barnes Hospital. His efforts to modernize the hospital and the Washington University Medical Center led to the construction of Queeny Tower as well as a dispute between the hospital and Washington University. The resolution of this dispute led to closer ties between the School of Medicine and its associated hospitals. He was also a conservationist and amateur naturalist and photographer.


Schonfeld, Gustav

  • Person
  • 1934-2011

Gustav Schonfeld was born in 1934 in Munkacs, Hungary ( which is now Mukachevo, Ukraine). In 1944 during World War II, Schonfeld and his family were taken from their home to the Auschwitz concentration camp in Poland. His brother and grandmother died there, and he was separated from his mother until the end of the war. Schonfeld and his father spent over a year transferring between concentration camps at Auschwitz, Warsaw, Dachau,and Muhldorf. During this time, Schonfeld assisted his father, a physician, who was put to work treating sick prisoners at each of the camps.

After the war, Schonfeld and his parents immigrated to the St. Louis area in 1946. Although he did not know English when he arrived in the U.S., he quickly learned while attending public school in East St. Louis. Schonfeld attended Washington University, earning a bachelor’s degree in 1956,and a medical degree in 1960. After residency in Internal Medicine at New York University, he returned to Washington University in 1963 as chief resident at Jewish Hospital. He subsequently served as a fellow in endocrinology and metabolism at Barnes Hospital. He spent two years as a research flight medical officer with the U.S. Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine and two years at MIT as associate professor of nutrition. He then returned to St. Louis and joined the School of Medicine faculty in 1972 as associate professor of Preventive Medicine and of Internal Medicine and director of the Lipid Research division, becoming a full professor in 1977.

Schonfeld served as acting chair of the Department of Preventive Medicine for three years before he was named the Kountz Professor of Medicine in 1987. From 1996 to 1999, he served as Adolphus Busch Professor, chair of the Department of Internal Medicine, and physician-in-chief at Barnes-Jewish Hospital, before returning full-time to his research on lipid metabolism. He became the Samuel E. Schechter Professor of Medicine in 2001. He was a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, a member of the American Society for Clinical Investigation and the Association of American Physicians. In 1995, he received an Alumni/Faculty Award from the Washington University Medical Center Alumni Association.

Barnes Hospital (Saint. Louis, Mo.)

  • n87830943
  • Corporate body
  • 1914-1993

The history of Barnes Hospital begins with the will of St. Louis businessman and philanthropist Robert A. Barnes. In 1892, Barnes bequeathed funds to be used for, "erecting and maintaining a hospital for the sick and injured persons without distinction of creed." While plans for the hospital were being formalized, Washington University President Robert S. Brookings was searching for a teaching hospital with which to affiliate Washington University Medical School. He approached the trustees of Barnes Hospital, and by 1911 a contract between the two instituitions had been struck. The contract moved the location of Washington University School of Medicine to near the hospital's proposed Kingshighway location, and stipulated that the two institutions would share staff and other resources. On December 7, 1914, Barnes Hospital opened with 26 patients transferred from Washington University Hospital.

In the ensuing years, Barnes Hospital would continue to expand, offering new services, building larger facilities, and treating more patients. The 26 initial patients of 1914 became 3,501 admitted to Barnes and its operating hospitals in 1920, a number which grew to 22,000 admitted patients in 1950 and to 34,553 admitted patients in 1995. Facilities expanded to accommodate these patients, with the new East Pavilion rising in 1972 and the West Pavilion joining it in 1980. The pavilions linked with Queeny Tower, which had opened in 1965. Staff also expanded from the original 80 members in 1915. By 1995, Barnes employed 5,721 full time employees; had 1,433 physicians on staff; and housed 741 interns, residents, and fellows. Net revenue in the 100 years of operation increased from $3.675.77 in 1915 to $34,486 in 2015. As it has grown, Barnes Hospital and its staff members have achieved many medical innovations and firsts. These innovations are numerous and range from the first successful total pneumonectomy in 1933 to the country's first successful nerve transplantation in 1993.

Barnes Hospital would go on to be associated in various ways with many other medical facilities over the coming years, including St. Louis Children's Hospital; St. Louis Maternity Hospital; Mallinckrodt Radiological Institute; McMillan Hospital and Oscar Johnson Institute; David P. Wohl Hospital; Barnard Free Skin and Cancer Hospital; Renard Hospital; and the Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center. In November 1992, Barnes and Jewish Hospitals signed an affiliation agreement, agreeing to pool resources wherever possible. This affiliation agreement was completed in March 1993 to create Barnes-Jewish, Incorporated (BJI). In April of 1993, BJI and Christian Health Services announced that they would affiliate to create BJC Health System, an affiliation which was finalized in June 1993. In January of 1996, a merger of Barnes and Jewish Hospital, built on the sharing of resources which began with the completion of the affiliation agreement in 1993, was legally completed, and the two became the present day Barnes-Jewish Hospital. Barnes-Jewish Hospital is consistently ranked among the best hospitals in America by U.S. News and World Report.

Executive Faculty, Washington University School of Medicine

  • Corporate body
  • 1910-

The Executive Faculty is the chief governing body of the School of Medicine. The body was constituted in its present form at the time of the academic reorganization of the School in 1910. A definition published in the Bulletin of Washington University, Twenty-first Annual Catalogue of the Medical School, July, 1910, p. 7, reads as follows:

The Executive Faculty will be composed of the heads of departments designated by the Corporation of the University and will discharge and deal with all matters usually disposed of by executive faculties.

This formula, albeit vaguely phrased, holds to this day. The concept of an executive faculty was not new in 1910. Before the reorganization, the old Washington University Medical Department, formerly St. Louis Medical College, had been led by an Executive Committee. In addition, Missouri Medical College, which merged with the Medical Department in 1899, had been governed by an Executive Committee. But in 1910, following recommendations set forth in the Flexner Report, the existing administrative structure of the Medical Department was formally abolished, then reconstituted under new leadership. The autonomy granted to the new members of the Executive Faculty allowed them to bring about further changes toward the modernization of the medical school.

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