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Authority record
Library of Congress

Irene Walter Johnson Institute of Rehabilitation

  • 06814732‏
  • Corporate body
  • 1950-present

In 1950 Irene W. (Mrs. Oscar) Johnson donated $235,000 to Washington University for the establishment of a medical rehabilitation facility as a unit of the McMillan Hospital. In October 1959 the Irene Walter Johnson Institute of Rehabilitation opened at 509 S. Euclid Avenue, between the McMillan Hospital and the Washington University Clinics. Services of the Institute were coordinated through the Washington University School of Medicine’s Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.
Source: Women in the Health Sciences http://beckerexhibits.wustl.edu/mowihsp/win/Timeline/IWJInstitute.htm

Senturia, Ben H.

  • 150641
  • Person
  • 1910-1982

Ben Senturia (1910-1982) was an otolaryngologist who began his practice in St. Louis in 1939. Senturia was educated at Washington University earning his A.B. in 1931 and his M.D. in 1935. After an internship at the St. Louis City Hospital and an additional internship and residency in otolaryngology at the McMillan-Barnes Hospital, Dr. Senturia joined the faculty of Washington University School of Medicine in 1938. He also worked with closely with Max Goldstein and Dr. Richard Silverman at the Central Institute for the Deaf. His World War II service was with the U.S. Air Force in the research section of the School of Aviation Medicine where he conducted major investigation in noise induced hearing loss and in the infections of the external ear.

After the war, Senturia taught medical students and graduate students and conducted major research programs in otolaryngology. His clinical and basic research in external otitis resulted in two textbooks and over 80 scientific papers. In 1952, he became director of the department of otolaryngology at the Jewish Hospital of St. Louis. He was also president of the American Otological Society from 1972-1973. Arthur Proetz appointed him associate editor of the Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology in 1958 and he became its editor in 1966.

Curtman, Charles O.

  • 2014165141
  • Person
  • 1829-1896

Charles O. Curtman was born Karl Otto Curtman in Giessen, Germany and was a medical graduate of the university in his native city, where he was a student of Justus von Liebig. After working in Antwerp, Belgium as an industrial chemist, he emigrated to the United States and settled in New Orleans in 1850. When the Civil War began he was commissioned as a medical officer in a Confederate cavalry unit, but soon thereafter was assigned to direct the manufacture of medicines and explosives at army laboratories. After the war he practiced medicine in Memphis and from there was recruited to join the faculty of Missouri Medical College in St. Louis. He was Professor of Chemistry at the College from 1868 until 1874 and again from 1883 until his death.

Curtman also taught at the St. Louis College of Pharmacy (the two colleges maintained an informal affiliation) and was on the staff of the Mallinckrodt Chemical Works in the city. Too early to be considered a "biochemist," he was nonetheless a significant local pioneer in investigating and teaching laboratory science to medical and pharmacy students. He was the author of three laboratory manuals and numerous journal reviews of current scientific developments. At the very end of his life, he was among the first in St. Louis to investigate applications for the newly discovered principles of x-ray technology.

Davis, Hallowell, 1896-1992

  • 70808
  • Person
  • 1896-1992

Hallowell Davis was born in New York City on August 31, 1896. He studied at Harvard University, receiving a B.A. there in 1918 and an M.D. in 1922. Davis's interest in electrophysiology developed while doing post-graduate research in England under Lord Adrian. In 1923, Hallowell Davis joined the Department of Physiology at the Harvard Medical School. His research concentrated on the electrophysiology of nerves. He became associated with the informal group of scientists known as "axonologists," which also included Joseph Erlanger, Herbert Gasser, and others of WUSM. In the 1930s Davis began concentrating on problems relating to hearing, but was also active in research on electrical activity in the brain. He contributed to the development of one of the first ink-writing electroencephalographs. During World War II he did vital war-related research on human tolerance to loud sounds and on the development of hearing aids.

Hearing aid research brought Davis into frequent contact with Central Institute for the Deaf, which was a subcontractor to a Harvard project. In 1946 he accepted an offer to establish a Research Department at CID and also to join the WUSM Departments of Physiology and Otolaryngology.

Among his first major projects in St. Louis was measurement of effectiveness of fenestration operations pioneered by Theodore Walsh. Davis's use of speech in these hearing tests was the beginning of speech audiometry. He became a leading figure in the development of the first American standards for audiometers and the adoption of the international zero reference level as part of that standard. He continued research under several contracts with the U.S. Armed Forces, contributing to work in ultrasonics, mechanical shock, and other areas. In the 1960s he was a member of the National Research Council's Committee on SST (super-sonic transport) and Sonic Boom.

Hallowell Davis retired officially in 1965, but remained active as CID Director of Research Emeritus and Professor Emeritus of Otolaryngology. In 1976 he was awarded the National Medal of Science by President Gerald R. Ford. Davis died in 1992.

Mueller, C. Barber

  • n2002137042
  • Person
  • 1917-2014

C. Barber Mueller was born in Carlinville, Illinois and earned his medical degree at Washington University School of Medicine in 1942. After completing a surgical internship at Barnes Hospital, Meuller spent three years with the 4th U.S. Marine Division in the Pacific Theater and won a bronze star and two Purple Hearts. When he returned from overseas, Mueller first completed a Rockefeller Fellowship in biochemistry at Harvard Medical School, then a surgical residency at Barnes Hospital. Mueller was Evarts Graham's last chief resident.

After completion of his residency, Mueller was appointed as a full-time faculty member at Washington University School of Medicine in 1951. In 1956, Mueller moved to Syracuse, New York as a Professor of Surgery and Department Chairman at the State University of New York (SUNY) Upstate Medical Center. Mueller moved to Ontario, Canada in 1967 to take a position as Professor of Surgery and Department Chairman at McMaster University. He became an emeritus professor at McMaster in 1983.

Gray, Samuel H.

  • n2004076373
  • Person
  • 1897-1949

Dr. Samuel H. Gray (1897-1949) was a pathologist at Jewish Hospital who was the longtime director of its laboratory and research division until his death in 1949. Gray also taught at Washington University School of Medicine as associate professor of pathology. He graduated from the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University (1923) and was a lieutenant commander in the U.S. Navy during WWII.

Source: St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 18 August 1949; Bulletin of the St. Louis Jewish Hospital Medical Staff, October 1949, page 39-41

Hodgen, John T. (John Thompson)

  • n2006087065
  • Person
  • 1826-1882

John Thompson Hodgen (1826-1882) was born in Hodgenville, Kentucky. He attended Bethany College in West Virginia and studied at the medical department of the University of Missouri (later Missouri Medical College). After graduating from medical school in 1848, he served as Assistant Resident Physician of St. Louis City Hospital for a year. Dr. Hodgen then practiced with Dr. Joseph N. McDowell in St. Louis. He joined the faculty of Missouri Medical College, serving as Demonstrator of Anatomy (1849-1853), Chair of Anatomy (1854-1862), and Chair of Physiology (1858-1862).

During the Civil War, Dr. Hodgen was appointed to the rank of Surgeon General of the State of Missouri in 1862. When Dr. McDowell sided with the Confederacy, Dr. Hodgen transferred his allegiance to the St. Louis Medical College where he served as the Chair of Physiology (1862-1868) and Dean of the College (1865-1882). In addition to his administrative duties at the St. Louis Medical College, Dr. Hodgen also taught clinical surgery at City Hospital from 1864-1882 and was a surgeon at St. Luke's Hospital.

Dr. Hodgen was a member of the St. Louis Board of Health from 1867-1871, President of the St. Louis Medical Society in 1872, Chairman of the Surgical Section of the American Medical Association in 1873, president of the Missouri State Medical Association in 1874, a member of the International Medical Congress in 1876 and 1881, one of the founders of the American Surgical Association, and President of the American Medical Association in 1881.

Dr. Hodgen's literary work consisted largely in contributions to medical journals. He edited the chapters on injuries to the chest and injuries of the abdomen in the American edition of A System of Surgery edited by Timothy Holmes. Some of his papers were on the surgery of shock, nerve sections for neuralgia, fractures, and thigh and skin grafting. Among the many surgical appliances devised by him are a wire suspension splint, a cradle splint, a snare for the for the removal of urethral calculi, a surgeon's reel and artery forceps, and a simple siphon and stomach pump.

St. Louis City Hospital

  • n2012186348
  • Corporate body
  • 1846-1987

St. Louis City Hospital No.1 first opened its doors in 1846 as the primary public hospital for St. Louis residents. It was destroyed by a fire ten years later, prompting city officials to rebuild and reopen the hospital in 1857. In 1884, St. Louis City Hospital became the home of the area's first nursing education program, the St. Louis Training School for Nurses. It was again destroyed in 1896 by a tornado, which led to an extensive rebuilding effort that completed the current building in 1907 with additional structures on the 10-acre complex.

After City Hospital No.2 (later the Homer G. Phillips Hospital) was established on the north side of the city limits in 1919, the hospital primarily served St. Louis residents in the south side. It remained open until 1987, and was renovated into condominiums in 2006. The structure was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2001.

Sluder, Greenfield

  • n2012188718
  • Person
  • 1865-1928

Greenfield Sluder was an ear, nose, and throat surgeon based in St. Louis. He is best known for popularizing the use of subtotal tonsillectomy in 1920. Sluder earned his doctorate from Washington University in 1888 and continued his studies in Europe for several more years. He joined the Washington University staff in 1891 as an instructor of clinical medicine, rising through the ranks to become clinical professor and head of the Department of Laryngology and Rhinology in 1906. By the time of his death, Sluder had written two books and nearly 70 papers.

Tuholske, H. (Herman)

  • n2017189594
  • Person
  • 1848-1922

Herman Tuholske was born on March 27, 1848 in Meseritz, Prussia. He was educated at the Berlin Gymnasium and immigrated to the United States, settling in St. Louis in 1865. He graduated from the Missouri Medical College in 1869 and then returned to Europe for a time to complete post-graduate courses in Vienna, Berlin, London and Paris. From 1870 to 1875 Tuholske served as physician to the St. Louis City Dispensary; he was also in charge of the Quarantine Hospital during this time. In 1873 he was appointed professor of anatomy at Missouri Medical College. He became professor of surgery in 1882, a post he maintained until 1909 (Missouri Medical College was absorbed by Washington University in 1899).

In 1882, Tuholske co-founded the St. Louis Post-Graduate School of Medicine and its hospital, where he also served as professor of surgery. The school was the first of its kind in the country. From 1890 to 1902, Tuholske established and ran the St. Louis Surgical and Gynecological Hospital, a private institution attached to his home. Tuholske became the first president of the medical staff at Jewish Hospital in 1902 and served in this capacity until 1920; he was head of the hospital's Department of Surgery concurrently.

A specialist in abdominal surgery, Tuholske's accomplishments include being the first to record successful ovariotomies and developing a new method of stomach resection. Tuholske was also a leader in the campaign to make completion of a three-year medical course a prerequisite for obtaining a medical license in Missouri, and he was instrumental in the creation of the Missouri State Board of Health. Additionally, he was a founding member of the International Gynecological Association.

Mudd, H. H. (Henry Hodgen)

  • n2017189958
  • Person
  • 1844-1899

Henry Hodgen Mudd received his medical degree from St. Louis Medical College in 1866. He spent 18 years demonstrating and teaching anatomy at St. Louis Medical College, then served as dean of the faculty from 1896 until his death.

Medical Library Association

  • n50047045
  • Corporate body
  • 1898-

The Medical Library Association was founded as the Association of Medical Librarians on May 2, 1898, by four librarians and four physicians in the office of the Philadelphia Medical Journal at the invitation of George M. Gould, M.D., editor.

Source: https://www.mlanet.org

Schwartz, Henry G.

  • n78009432
  • Person
  • 1909-1998

Henry Gerard Schwartz (1909-1998) is remembered as one most important and influential American figures in the field of neurosurgery. His primary research interests were focused in anatomy, surgery, and physiology of the nervous system. Dr. Schwartz made important clinical contributions to neurosurgery in pain, intracranial aneurysms, and pituitary and cerbellopontine angle tumors. He designed one of the first spring vascular clips for aneurysm surgery and refined open surgical techniques for cervical cordotomy.

Born in New York City on March 11, 1909, he obtained a bachelor's degree in 1928 from Princeton University. He then earned a medical degree from Johns Hopkins University in 1932. Dr. Schwartz began his career as a surgical house officer at Johns Hopkins. He then studied anatomy and neuroanatomy at Harvard University for three years as a National Research Council fellow. Upon completion of his fellowship, he served as an anatomy instructor at Harvard Medical School before joining Washington University School of Medicine in 1936.

Dr. Schwartz spent the larger part of his career at Washington University, serving in a number of different positions: Fellow in Neurosurgery (1936-1937), Instructor (1937-1942), Assistant Professor in Neurosurgery (1942-1945), Associate Professor (1945-1946), Professor (1946-1970), Chairman of the Division of Neurological Surgery (1946-1974), and August A. Busch, Jr. Professor of Neurological Surgery (1970-1985). In addition to his academic appointments, Dr. Schwartz was acting Surgeon-in-Chief at Barnes Hospital from 1965 to 1967 and Chief Neurosurgeon at Barnes and St. Louis Children's Hospital from 1946 to 1974. As a well-respected educator, his training program attracted many talented students to Washington University.

During World War II, Dr. Schwartz served as Assistant Chief of Surgery and Chief of Neurosurgery in the U.S. Army's 21st General Hospital. During his service, he developed a method for handling wounds to the head and nerves that became standard procedure for the military. For this accomplishment, he received the prestigious Legion of Merit in 1945. Dr. Schwartz was honored numerous times throughout his career for his contributions to neurosurgery. Among his many other awards are the Harvey Cushing Medal from the American Association of Neurological Surgeons and the Distinguished Service Award from the American Board of Neurological Surgery.

In 1985, Dr. Schwartz was elected Honorary President of the World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies. He also served as Chairman of the American Board of Neurological Surgery (1968-1970) and as President of the Southern Neurosurgical Society (1952-1953), the American Academy of Neurological Surgeons (1967-1968), and the Society of Neurological Surgeons (1968-1969).

Sonnenwirth, Alexander C.

  • n79005678
  • Person
  • 1923-1984

Alexander C. Sonnenwirth was born in Oradea, Romania into a German-speaking Jewish family. In addition to German, Sonnenwirth learned Romanian, Hungarian, and Hebrew as a child. After completing his secondary education, Sonnenwirth went to Budapest to stay with relatives while he worked as a photographer. However, World War II shattered the world in which he and his family lived. Most of the Jews of Oradea, including Sonnenwirth's parents, were sent to death camps by the German invaders. Sonnenwirth escaped that fate, but was forced to serve in a labor gang for the duration of the war until he was rescued by Allied forces.

Immediately after the war, Sonnenwirth lived in a camp for displaced persons in Marburg, Germany. He was awarded a Hillel Scholarship which enabled him to come to the United States to study bacteriology at the University of Nebraska. After earning a Bachelor's degree in 1950, Sonnenwirth continued his studies at Purdue University where he graduated with a Master's of Science in 1953. While a student, he married Rosaline Soffer, and in 1953, the Sonnenwirths moved to St. Louis when he was appointed Assistant Director of the Division of Bacteriology at Jewish Hospital.

Sonnenwirth became the director of the division in 1955 and began doctoral studies in bacteriology at Washington University. Studying under Dr. Theodore Rosebury of the School of Dentistry, Sonnenwirth received his PhD in 1960. In addition to his duties at Jewish Hospital, Sonnenwirth served several academic appointments including Instructor of Bacteriology in the School of Dentistry (1958-1961) and as Assistant Professor in the School of Medicine for the Departments of Microbiology (1962) and Pathology (1968). In 1970, he was promoted to Associate Professor in the latter two departments and became a full Professor in 1977.

Sonnenwirth's scientific contributions included both 'pure' research and innovation in clinical technology. His chief research specialty was the study of anaerobic gram-negative bacilli. His enormous knowledge in this and related fields was expressed in the publication of over one hundred scientific papers and summarized in his editorship of the sixth, seventh, and eighth editions of Gradwohl's Clinical Laboratory Methods and Diagnosis (1963, 1970, 1980). He and his colleagues of the Microbiology Laboratory at Jewish Hospital were leading evaluators of new equipment and procedures, particularly of automated testing instrumentation.

Sonnenwirth was for many years a key participant in professional associations of microbiologists and their conferences, symposiums, and seminars. This activity included extensive travel within the U.S. and abroad. Sonnenwirth is remembered for his services to the American Society for Microbiology, having been among the organizers of the Clinical Microbiology Section in 1963 and its chairman from 1970 to 1973. Sonnenwirth was chosen by the American Society for Microbiology to receive its highest professional recognition, the Becton-Dickinson Award, in 1984.

Ternberg, Jessie L.

  • n7911497
  • Person
  • 1924-2016

Jessie L. Ternberg, PhD, MD, received her undergraduate degree from Grinnell College in 1946 and her doctorate in biochemistry from University of Texas in 1950. During her time at Texas, she and Robert Eakin discovered the mechanism by which the vitamin B-12 is absorbed in the intestine. She received her medical degree from Washington University in 1953 and interned at Boston City Hospital after graduation. Ternberg returned to Washington University for her research fellowship and surgery residency at Barnes Hospital becoming the first female resident in surgery at Barnes Hospital and Washington University. She joined the faculty in 1959 as an instructor of surgery, eventually reaching full professorship in 1971 as professor of surgery and associate professor of surgery in pediatrics. She was the first female surgeon on the faculty of the Washington University School of Medicine. In 1972, Ternberg was appointed as the chief of the newly created Division of Pediatric Surgery. She was the first woman to be elected head of the faculty council. On her retirement in 1996 she was made professor emerita of surgery and surgery in pediatrics.

Throughout her career, Ternberg made significant contributions to medicine in her research. Her best-known study is the appliance of electron spin resonance spectrometry to the investigation of free radicals. She also published A Handbook of Pediatric Surgery in 1980, which became a standard reference book for doctors due to its emphasis that children must be treated different from adults since diseases take different form in adolescents. Ternberg received wide recognition, including awards such as the Washington University Alumni Award, the International Women's Year Award for Health Care, the St. Louis Globe-Democrat Woman of Achievement Award and membership in Alpha Omega Alpha. Washington University School of Medicine established the Jessie L. Ternberg Award in 1998, which is given annually to a female medical school graduate who best exemplifies Ternberg's "indomitable spirit of determination, perseverance and dedication to her patients."

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