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Bernard Becker Medical Library, Washington University in St. Louis

Cady, Lee D.

  • 06286555
  • Person
  • 1896-1987

Lee D. Cady was a physician who served on the Washington University and Baylor University Schools of Medicine staff, and served overseas for the U.S. in both WWI and WWII. Cady graduated from University of Missouri (A.B. 1918) and Washington University School of Medicine (A.M. 1921; M.D. 1922), and was a faculty member at Washington University (Departments of Medicine and Clinical Medicine) from 1925 to 1942. He did his internship and residency at Washington University, 1922-1925. During WWII, he was the commander of the 21st General Hospital, the hospital unit for Washington University in Rouen, France. Under his leadership, the base hospital cared for over 65,000 patients in the European theater of the war. For his medical service and assistance in the liberation of France, Cady received the French Croix de Guerre in 1945. The next year, he was appointed the director of medical services for the Veterans Administration in Dallas, presiding over the regional branches in Texas, Louisiana, and Mississippi. Cady served in that position for thirteen years and later was appointed as the director of the Veterans Hospital in Houston. He passed away in 1987 and was buried with full military honors in Arlington National Cemetery.

Scott, Wendell G., 1905-1972

  • 1396767
  • Person
  • 1905-1972

Wendell Scott (1905-1972) contributed much to the fields of radiology and cancer research. Born on July 19, 1905, in Boulder, Colorado, Scott earned his BA from the University of Colorado in 1928. In 1932, he attained his MD from Washington University School of Medicine. Scott completed his internship at Barnes Hospital between 1933 and 1934 and then became an instructor at Washington University School of Medicine, advancing to a full professor of clinical radiology in 1956. Throughout his career, Scott was associated with Washington University's Department of Radiology (known as the Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology). At the Mallinckrodt Institute, he helped develop radiographic kymography and rapid film changers for diagnostic radiographic use. He constructed a kymograph to determine its practical, clinical value in examining the heart, chest, and abdomen.

Scott also served in the U.S. Naval Reserve, eventually rising to the rank of rear admiral. He joined the Naval Reserve in 1936 and served on active duty between 1941 and 1946. He continued to serve the Naval Reserve as a Consultant in Radiology to the Surgeon General of the Navy and was promoted to the rank of rear admiral in 1959. In 1970, President Nixon commissioned Scott for the National Cancer Advisory Board, whose recommendations spurred the enactment of the National Cancer Act of 1971. Scott was a member of a number of radiological and cancer organizations. He served as president of the American Cancer Society from 1963 to 1964 and also headed the American Roentgen Ray Society from 1958 to 1957.

The author of over 150 scientific articles, Scott also served as editor-in-chief of Your Radiologist and editor of Planning Guide for Radiological Installations, Cancer, and Genetics, Radiobiology, and Radiology. Scott received numerous awards and accolades for his contributions to the medical field, including the Gold Medal of the St. Louis Medical Society, the President’s Medal of the American Roetgen Ray Society, the Gold Medal of the American College of Radiology, the National Award of the American Cancer Society, and distinguished alumni awards from the University of Colorado and Washington University. Scott succumbed to the very disease he devoted his life to studying, dying of kidney cancer on May 4, 1972, in St. Louis.

Minnich, Virginia

  • 609979
  • Person
  • 1910-1996

Virginia Minnich was born January 24, 1910, in Zanesville, Ohio. She graduated with a bachelor's degree from Ohio State University in 1937 and earned a master's degree from Iowa State College in 1938. Minnich's expertise was in hematology and nutrition. She studied iron metabolism, platelet function, abnormal hemoglobins, thalassemia and morphology/hematology. He work led to the discovery of hemoglobin E and the elucidation of the glutathionine synthesis pathway. She also created wide-ranging audiovisual programs on all aspects of blood and bone marrow, which have been used worldwide.

Minnich spent her entire medical career at Washington University School of Medicine, starting as a hematology research assistant in 1939. In 1958, she was promoted to research associate. She was elevated to full professor in 1974. Minnich spent 1964-65 in Turkey on a Fulbright Award. She was a member of the Foundation for Clinical Research, the American Society of Hematology and the International Society of Hematology.

Loeb, Leo, 1869-1959

  • 6195736
  • Person
  • 1869-1959

Leo Loeb was born in Mayen, Germany on September 21, 1869 and studied at the Universities of Heidelberg, Berlin, Basle, and Freiburg. He received his medical degree from the University of Zurich in 1897. Upon graduation he moved to Chicago, Illinois at the age of 27 and briefly established a private practice. After only 10 months of working as a private practitioner, he decided to devote more of his time to research, so he joined the Department of Pathology at the University of Illinois. In 1904, Dr. Loeb accepted a position at the University of Pennsylvania as Professor of Experimental Pathology.

Dr. Loeb moved to Saint Louis in 1910 to become the Director of the Department of Pathology at the Barnard Skin and Cancer Hospital. His long association with the Washington University School of Medicine began in 1915, when he became Professor of Comparative Pathology. Following the resignation of Eugene Opie, he became Professor of Pathology and head of the department in 1924.

Dr. Loeb was a charter member of the American Association for Cancer Research and served as president of that association in 1911. Among the many honors he received throughout his career was his election to the National Academy of Sciences in 1937. Dr. Loeb retired as emeritus Professor of Pathology that year, but even at the age of 72, he and continued his experimental investigations and focused a majority of his time writing. His book titled The Biological Basis of Individuality was published in 1945, and at the time of his death in 1959, Loeb was working on two additional books. One is on mental processes and titled Psychical Goods or The Imponderables. The other unfinished book is concerned with the causes and nature of cancer.

His autobiography in Ingles' A dozen doctors (1963) gives fascinating details of his life in Germany, Switzerland, and the United States.

Blair, Vilray Papin, 1871-1955

  • 6579956
  • Person
  • 1871-1955

Vilray Papin Blair is most known for his pioneering work in plastic surgery. A native of St. Louis, Blair graduated from Christian Brothers College in 1890 and subsequently enrolled in the St. Louis Medical College. There he was greatly influenced by Elisha Hall Gregory, a professor of surgery. He graduated in 1893 and began an internship at Mullanphy Hospital under distinguished surgeon Paul Yoer Tupper.

In 1894 Blair was appointed instructor with the Anatomy Department of St. Louis Medical College (which had joined Washington University in 1891). In 1896 he took a leave from medicine to join the crew of a merchant vessel bound for Europe, a decision that led to him becoming a ship surgeon for a journey to Brazil and then a military surgeon for British troops sailing to West Africa.

Upon his return to St. Louis in 1900, Blair established a private surgical practice and resumed teaching at the School of Medicine. He was named to the visiting staff of St. Louis City Hospital in 1910. In 1917 Blair joined the U.S. Army Corps entering World War I and was named chief of oral and plastic surgery. On his return to St. Louis he was active in the Medical Reserve Corps and served as attending specialist in plastic surgery at the Jefferson Barracks Veterans Hospital.

Blair served as assistant professor of clinical surgery at the School of Medicine in 1922 and was named professor in 1927. He also served as professor of oral surgery at the Washington University School of Dentistry. He became an emeritus professor of both schools in 1941. Throughout his career, Blair published many influential books and articles in the areas of plastic and oral surgery. Another foremost achievement was his leadership in creating the American Board of Plastic Surgery, which helped seal his place as a pioneer in establishing plastic surgery as a unique branch of medicine.

O'Leary, James L., 1904-1975

  • 9667769
  • Person
  • 1904-1975

James L. O'Leary was born on December 8, 1904 in Tomahawk, Wisconsin. At the age of two, his family moved to San Antonio, Texas. He began his undergraduate career at the University of Texas in San Antonio in 1920. After two years, he transferred to the University of Chicago, where he was awarded his B.S. in Biology in 1925. Following his matriculation, he began work on his Ph.D. in Anatomy. During his Ph.D. studies, he worked as an Instructor in Anatomy at the university. After receiving his doctorate in 1928, he accepted the position of Assistant Professor of Anatomy at the Washington University School of Medicine. In addition to his role at Washington University, O'Leary he continued his studies in Chicago, pursuing a medical degree during the summer months. He received his M.D. from the University of Chicago in 1931.

After graduation, O'Leary moved to St. Louis and began to work full time at the university. In 1933, he was promoted to Associate Professor of Anatomy and, in 1941, was jointly appointed to as an Assistant Professor of Neurology in the developing Neurology Division. He held both of these positions until 1946. In 1941, O'Leary joined the United States Medical Corps. He was assigned to the Army School of Military Neuropsychiatry at Mason General Hospital in New York, where he taught neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and electroencephalography. He was honorably discharged in 1946, with the rank of Lieutenant Colonel. Upon his return, O'Leary was appointed as an Associate Professor and head of the Neurology Division. Under his leadership, the division was granted full department status in 1963. During his time with the department, he extensively studied nerve physiology, pain mechanisms, and the clinical and electroencephalographic aspects of epilepsy. He continued to serve as head of the department until his retirement from teaching and administration in 1971. He continued his work with the university in the role of Emeritus Professor of Neurology and Neurological Surgery.

Throughout his career, Dr. O'Leary was involved with a number of professional organizations. He served as president of the American Neurological Society, American Electroencephalographic Society, and the American Epilepsy Society. In 1971, he received the American Neurological Association's Jacoby Award, the highest honor awarded by the association. James L. O'Leary died on May 25, 1975 at the age of 70 years.

Ronzoni, Ethel

  • Person
  • 1890-1975

Ethel or Ethyl Ronzoni was born in California to Silvio Ronzoni and Mary Espy in 1890. She was a chemist at the time of her marriage to George H. Bishop in 1922. She earned her BS from Mills College in 1913, her masters from Columbia University in 1914, and her Ph.D. in Physiology from Wisconsin in 1923. She was one of the first women to join the faculty of Washington University Medical School as Assistant Professor in 1923. She was promoted to Associate Professor in 1943. Her research was in muscle chemistry and steroid hormone. She retired in 1959.

Johnson, John B., 1817-1903

  • Person
  • 1817-1903

John B. Johnson (Bates) (1817-1903) was the first physician to be elected vice president of the American Medical Association. A Massachusetts native, Johnson received his undergraduate degree from Harvard University and his medical degree from Berkshire Medical College in 1840. Johnson settled in St. Louis in 1841 and soon gained prominence for establishing the first public dispensary west of the Mississippi River. He began his teaching career in 1846 at Kemper Medical College, which later became Missouri Medical College.

In 1850, Johnson was one of the organizers of the AMA, which he was voted as their inaugural vice president in the same year. He also was one of the founders of the Missouri State Medical Association, and served one term as president in 1852. The Medical Department of St. Louis University, hired him in 1854 to become the chair of principles and practice of medicine. In 1955 The Medical Department of St. Louis University became independent institution, the St. Louis Medical College. During the Civil War, he was a member of the United States Sanitary Commission and was influential in raising funds for the care of the sick and wounded soldiers. After the war, Johnson continued to practice medicine in St. Louis until his death in 1903.

Baumgarten, Joanna

  • Family
  • Born 28 March 1840-15 August 1916

When Johanna Ernestine Luise BAUMGARTEN was born on May 28, 1840, her father, Friedrich, was 30, and her mother, Louise, was 25. She married Karl Adolf Friedrich GREIFFENHAGEN on July 3, 1862, in Northeim, Lower Saxony, Germany. They had five children during their marriage. She died on August 15, 1916, in Einbeck, Lower Saxony, Germany, having lived a long life of 76 years.

Johanna Ernestine Luise BAUMGARTEN 1840–1916 https://www.ancestrylibrary.com/family-tree/person/tree/117212765/person/190161913419/story

Baumgarten, Frederick Ernst

  • Person
  • 1810-1869

Born in Nordheim, Germany, Friedrich Ernst Baumgarten was a German-American physician who emigrated to the United States in the 1840s, settling in St. Louis in 1850. He received his medical degree from the University of Gottingen in 1831, and became a mining surgeon in in the town of Clausthal in the Harz Mountains. After earning another degree from the University of Jena in 1844, Friedrich became interested in the prospect of a better life in the United States.

He left his family for Galveston, Texas and attempted to establish a medical practice there, but yellow fever epidemics pushed him to settle further north. In 1850, Friedrich (now known as Frederick) came to St. Louis and found it to his liking due to the growing German immigrant community, so he sent for his wife and children to move in with him. The family settled in 1851, and Frederick became an American citizen in 1852. However, his wife could not adjust to life in America so she soon moved back to Germany with their daughters while their son, Gustav, remained behind with his father.

During his career in St. Louis, Frederick emphasized his medical interest in obstetrics, but carried on a successful practice with patients with a variety of backgrounds and medical afflictions. He was a founding member of the German Medical Society of St. Louis and participated in the St. Louis Medical Society, the St. Louis Academy of Science, and the Masonic Order.

Bronfenbrenner, J.,

  • Person
  • 1883-1953

A native of Cherson (Kherson), Ukraine, Jacques Jacob Bronfenbrenner studied at the Imperial University of Odessa (1902-1906). While a student, he was a member of the Social Revolutionary Party and may have been a follower of Leon Trotsky. Marked for arrest by the tsarist regime, Bronfenbrenner fled the Russian Empire and found a haven as a student at the Institut Pasteur in Paris (1907-1909). While in Paris, he worked in the laboratories of Elie Metchnikoff (Ilya Ilich Mechnikov, 1845-1916), who won the Nobel Prize in 1908 for discovery of phagocytosis and with other Russian emigre scientists, notably Alexandre Besredka. Much of Bronfenbrenner's early laboratory research was based on Besredka's fundamental discoveries in antiviral therapies.

Bronfenbrenner's mentors at the Institut Pasteur made possible his collaboration with Hideyo Noguchi (1876-1928), a Japanese microbiologist working at the Rockefeller Institute in New York. Simon Flexner, director of laboratories at Rockefeller, sponsored Bronfenbrenner's moving to New York in 1909 and hired him as a research fellow. There he investigated techniques for serum diagnosis of infectious diseases. To further his formal academic training, Bronfenbrenner also enrolled at Columbia University. He received his Ph.D. in 1912 from Columbia under William J. Gies, but his primary teachers remained Besredka and Noguchi.

Bronfenbrenner became a U.S. citizen in 1913. That same year he married Martha Ornstein, a historian of science. The couple moved to Pittsburgh, where Bronfenbrenner became head of the research and diagnostic laboratories of the Western Pennsylvania Hospital. His research at this time focused on the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis using biological methods rather than on other chemical or surgical remedies. A son, Martin, was born in 1915. Martha Ornstein died in an automobile accident that same year, which may have prompted Bronfenbrenner to return to the east coast of the United States.

In 1917 Bronfenbrenner became an assistant professor of preventive medicine and hygiene at Harvard, a position which allowed him to work toward an advanced degree in public health. In research he concentrated on means of diagnosing bacterial infections (he was particularly interested in botulism) and elucidating other causes of food poisoning. He received a Doctor of Public Health degree from Harvard in 1919. About this same time he married a second time, to Alice Bronfenbrenner, a chemist. In 1923, Bronfenbrenner returned to Rockefeller, this time to assume the position of "associate member," which granted him his own laboratory. He began what became his major career focus, namely, research on bacteriophages. Work with these so-called "bacteria eaters" (a term chosen by the principal discoverer, the Canadian Felix d'Herelle) inspired popular conjecture in terms of potential therapies for infectious diseases-they may have been a source of the fictional discovery celebrated in Sinclair Lewis's Arrowsmith (1925). Bronfenbrenner directed his investigations toward explaining the physical properties of bacteriophages and how to control and interpret lysis.

In 1928 Bronfenbrenner accepted the chair of the Department of Bacteriology and Immunology at Washington University School of Medicine (as one of two Rockefeller associates to join the Medical School that year-the other being E. V. Cowdry). In St. Louis he continued his research on purification and quantification of bacteriophages. His laboratories were in what is now known as the West Building and he recruited several brilliant junior faculty members. In time the most famous was Alfred Hershey, who in 1969 would receive the Nobel Prize for identifying the DNA of bacteriophages.

Bronfenbrenner may have been drawn to St. Louis in hopes of establishing a full-fledged school of public health, but was clear when the Great Depression assaulted the resources of Washington University and all comparable institutions that this dream could not be realized. It was difficult enough to maintain the functions of the 1914-designed laboratories inherited from the Pathology Department. Bronfenbrenner did however play a major role in the response to a particular public health threat that is now linked by name to his adopted city: St. Louis encephalitis.

Green, John, 1835-1913

  • Person
  • 1835-1913

Dr. John Green (1835-1913) was a prominent ophthalmologist in St. Louis. Born in Worcester, MA, Green attended Harvard College and completed his Medical Degree in 1858. Upon completing his medical studies, however, he refused to accept his M.D. degree from Harvard because he did not believe the requirements for graduation were up to his standards. He was privately examined by the Massachusetts Medical Society and was admitted and given privilege to practice medicine. By 1862, Green decided to accept his degree from Harvard after learning that there had been a reform movement at the Medical School.

In 1857, Dr. Green participated in a scientific expedition to Suriname as a curator of comparative anatomy for the Boston Society of Natural History, an experience which contributed to his participation in societies like the St. Louis Academy of Science and the Archaeological Society, for which he was a founding member. He also was appointed as a Trustee for the Missouri Botanical Gardens later in life. During the Civil War, Green served as acting assistant surgeon in the Army of the Tennessee for the Union. He studied twice in Europe, between 1859-1860 and again in 1865. During his 1865 trip to London, Paris, and Utrecht he specialized his studies in ophthalmology, and upon his return to the United States he established a practice in St. Louis. Green became a Lecturer in Ophthalmology at the St. Louis Medical College in 1871 and a full professor in 1886. In 1888, Dr. Green purchased the first dozen microscopes used at the institution with his own funds. When the St. Louis Medical College affiliated with Washington University School of Medicine in 1899, Green's title became Special Professor of Ophthalmology. He earned Emeritus status in 1911.

Cordonnier, Justin J.

  • Person
  • 1905-1980

Justin J. Cordonnier (M.D., WUSM, 1928) was associated with the surgical staff of Barnes Hospital for over fifty years. He was professor and head of the Division of Urology, WUSM Department of Surgery, from 1953 until his retirement in 1970. In 1978, he received the Raymond Guiteras Award from the American Urological Association, the nation's highest award in the field.

Suntzeff, Valentina

  • Person
  • 1891-1975

Valentina Davidovna Suntzeff was born on February 28, 1891 in Kazan, Russia. She began studying medicine in 1911 at the Women's Medical Institute in Petrograd (St. Petersburg). After her second year of medical school, she married Alexander Suntzeff, a mechanical engineering student. Despite taking a year off from school following the birth of her daughter Ludmilla, Suntziff was able to graduate in 1917.

Upon graduation, the Suntzeffs moved to Perm, Russia where she found her first job working in a hospital at an ammunition plant. During World War I, Suntzeff worked as a physician in the Russian Army and she served as the Physician-in-Chief of an isolation hospital for infectious diseases. Suntzeff continued living in Perm until the violent Bolshevik Revolution forced her family to evacuate the city. In August 1920, the Suntzeffs emigrated to Manchuria where she worked as a physician at the Central Hospital in Harbin, China. The Suntzeffs spent three years waiting for the situation in their home country to improve. With little hope of ever being able to return to a normal life in Russia, the Suntzeffs made the decision to move to the United States in 1923. As Suntzeff explains in her autobiography, "If you asked me why we decided to go to the United States, the answer is the pursuit of individual freedom which did not exist in Russia either before or after the Revolution."

In 1923, Suntzeff and her family sailed to Seattle having only $12.00 in their possession. Eventually settling in San Francisco, neither Suntzeff nor her husband could find work in their chosen fields. Instead of continuing her medical career, Suntzeff was forced to work at a sewing factory to make ends meet. After spending four years in San Francisco, Suntzeff's husband was finally able to find a job as a mechanical engineer at a match factory in St. Louis. Suntzeff however continued to struggle with finding work as a physician. In her autobiography, she attributes this problem to her "broken English and being a woman."

Finally in 1930, after being out of the medical field for nearly eight years, Suntzeff accepted a job as a volunteer researcher in the Pathology Department of the Washington University School of Medicine. After only three months working as a volunteer, she joined the staff as a Research Assistant in Pathology. In 1941, Suntzeff transferred to the Department of Anatomy when she became a Research Associate in Cancer Research, and in 1958, a Research Associate Professor. Suntzeff and her colleagues researched cancer of the skin. Her collaboration with biochemist Christopher Carruthers led to their discovery of a fundamental difference between the chemical composition of cancerous and normal tissues.

Suntzeff retired as Research Associate Professor Emeritus and Lecturer in Anatomy in 1960, but she continued to carry on cancer research for another 15 years. During her career, she authored or co-authored over 90 scientific publications.

Olmsted, William H.

  • Person
  • 1887-1978

William H. Olmsted (1887-1978) received his M.D. degree from Johns Hopkins University in 1913. He was an intern, 1913-1914 and resident and assistant resident, 1914-1917, at Barnes Hospital and afterwards served with Base Hospital 21, the medical unit sent by the hospital and WUSM to support American troops in World War 1. After the war, Olmsted re-joined the clinical faculty of the WUSM Department of Medicine, climbing the ladder from assistant in internal medicine to associate professor from 1915-1952.Olmsted became emeritus in 1952 .

In Barnes Hospital's first year of operation in 1914, Olmsted was the second medical resident to join the staff, along with acting as a clinical research pathologist, 1914. He was the first head of the hospital's chemical laboratory in 1920, and was the founding president of the Barnes Hospital Society in 1925. Olmsted became physician emeritus in 1952 .

From 1920 to 1963, Dr. Olmsted practiced as a private physician. He was certified in the practice of internal medicine in 1936, specializing in diabetes. In 1920, insulin was discovered to be effective in the treatment of diabetes, and Barnes Hospital was one of the first selected in the country to use the hormone to treat patients. Since Olmsted was the resident expert in diabetes, he became the first doctor to use insulin in St. Louis in the year 1922. Years later, in 1949, he founded the St. Louis Diabetes Association.

Ogura, Joseph H.

  • Person
  • 1915-1983

Joseph Hirosuke Ogura was born in San Francisco in 1915. He studied at the University of California, receiving his BA (1937) and MD (1941). From 1940-1948, he did internships and residencies at hospitals in California and Ohio as well as the WU School of Medicine and McMillan, Barnes, and St. Louis City Hospitals. Ogura's first teaching post at the School of Medicine in 1948 was instructor of Otolaryngology. He was promoted to assistant professor in 1951 and associate professor in 1953. He became full professor in 1960 and Lindburg Professor in 1966. He served as head of the department of Otolaryngology and otolaryngologist-in-chief at Barnes and St. Louis Children's Hospital for sixteen years, 1966-1982. He remained as staff otolaryngologist at Barnes and Childrens until his death in 1983 at the age of 67. The School of Medicine created the Ogura Lectureship in honor of him in 1977.

A superb academic physician and surgeon, Ogura developed refinements in the voice sparing operation for cancer of the larynx. Prior to his innovative laryngeal surgery, patients underwent total removal of the larynx. With his approach, he preserved larygeal function for speech and swallowing.

Ogura was an indefatigable contributor to medical literature and teaching programs of head and neck surgery. He was the author of more than 300 articles and 20 books. Head and neck cancer, ablative surgery,and reconstructive surgery were his specialties. His research interests included nasopulmonary mechanics, laryngeal physiology, and the study and care of progressive malignant exophthalmus and he explored the possibility of transplantation of the larynx.

Ogura was a member of 30 professional societies including the elite international society, Collegium Oto-Rhino-Larynogological Amicitiate Sacurum whose U.S. membership was limited to 20 active otolarynogologists. He was one of three physicians in the history of the American Larynogological Association to receive all three of its awards: the Casselberry Award, the James Newcombe Award and the DeRoalds Gold medial. He was president of the American Society for Head and Neck Surgery, the American Larynogological Association, and the Society of Academic Chairman of Otolaryngology. He was selected in 1980 to the Royal Society of Medicine, and appointed to the National Cancer Advisory Board by President Nixon in 1972.

*From WU Record, 04-21-1983 and Arch Otolaryngology 106:662-663, Nov. 1980.

Barbee, Andrew B.

  • Person
  • 1819-1896

Andrew B. "A.B." Barbee was a physician and surgeon who practiced in St. Louis. He graduated from Kemper Medical College in 1843 and authored a history of Missouri Medical college from 1840 to 1861, published in 1914.

Csapo, Arpad I.

  • Person
  • 1918-1981

Arpad I. Csapo was a Hungarian-American professor of obstetrics and gynecology at Washington University School of Medicine in the 1960s and 1970s. He is best known for his research on the progesterone hormone in the physiology of uterine function. Csapo developed a series of experiments testing a theory that the hormone serves to block the contraction of muscles in the pregnant uterus. His work also identified that after the initial weeks of pregnancy in the human, the blocking action of the hormone progesterone shifts from the ovaries to the placenta and further proved that the placental progesterone exerts its action on the uterus through a local mechanism, thus explaining why twins can be born several weeks apart.

He was born in 1918 in Szeged, Hungary. He studied medicine at the University of Szeged and received his M.D. in 1943. Next, Csapo completed his residency at the Semmelweis Medical University in Budapest. The Nobel Prize-winning biochemist Albert Szent-Gyorgyi was a great influence on Csapo's career, leading him to become interested in laboratory science. Szent-Gyorgyi employed him in his laboratory, where he succeeded in isolating actin and myosin, proteins responsible for contractible properties of muscle. Throughout the late 1940s, Csapo served as a Mannheimer Fellow at the University of Uppsala in Sweden and completed a fellowship with the Carnegie Institution in Baltimore while lecturing in obstetrics at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. In 1956, he became an associate professor at Rockefeller University, where he later became the director of the Laboratory of the Physiology of Reproduction. In 1963, Csapo became professor of obstetrics and gynecology at Washington University, where he remained until his death in 1981.

During his career, Csapo was a prolific writer and promoted international cooperation in uterine physiology research. He published over two hundred articles and contributed chapters to several textbooks. From the 1950s onward, Csapo participated in various projects with Brazilian and Finnish colleagues. He obtained a grant from the U.S. Department of State in 1973, which funded an Advanced Technology Fertility Training Center at Washington University that trained more than 300 physicians from 57 countries for five years. Although he became a U.S. citizen in 1953, Csapo preserved his roots in Hungary, frequently visiting his native country and inviting Hungarian researchers to St. Louis. After his death, Csapo was honored in 1983 with the Michaelis Medallion, a prestigious German prize in obstetrics.

White, Laurens P.

  • Person
  • 1925-2000

Laurens P. White, the son of Marie Bain and Park J. White, M.D., was born in 1925 He earned his M.D. at Washington University in the Class of 1949.. His early career was with the US Public Health Service and the National Instiute of Health.

Cori, Carl F.

  • Person
  • 1896-1984

Carl Ferdinand Cori was born in 1896 in Prague (then located in the Austro-Hungarian Empire), the son of a noted Austrian biologist. Cori began medical study in his native city, but this was interrupted by military service in World War I, during which he served as a medic on the Italian front. While a student again after the war, he became engaged to a classmate, Gerty Theresa Radnitz. The two were married in Vienna in 1920 shortly after receiving their medical degrees. Both chose research careers, but it proved very difficult to find suitable positions in war-impoverished Austria. In 1922, the Coris emigrated to the United States, where Carl took a position in Buffalo, at the State Institute for the Study of Malignant Disease (now Roswell Park Memorial Institute).

In 1931, Cori was appointed professor and chairman of the Department of Pharmacology at the Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. He would later switch departments and become professor and chair of the department of Biochemistry in 1946. Working with his wife Gerty, the Coris most notable contribution to science was their series of discoveries that elucidated the pathway of glycogen breakdown in animal cells and the enzymic basis of its regulation, now known as the Cori Cycle.

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