Showing 4775 results

Authority record

Irene Walter Johnson Institute of Rehabilitation

  • 06814732‏
  • Corporate body
  • 1950-present

In 1950 Irene W. (Mrs. Oscar) Johnson donated $235,000 to Washington University for the establishment of a medical rehabilitation facility as a unit of the McMillan Hospital. In October 1959 the Irene Walter Johnson Institute of Rehabilitation opened at 509 S. Euclid Avenue, between the McMillan Hospital and the Washington University Clinics. Services of the Institute were coordinated through the Washington University School of Medicine’s Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.
Source: Women in the Health Sciences http://beckerexhibits.wustl.edu/mowihsp/win/Timeline/IWJInstitute.htm

Steele, A. J. (Aaron John), 1835-1917

  • 11078775
  • Person
  • 1835-1917

Aaron Steele (1835-1917) was a prominent figure from the early years of the field of orthopedic surgery. Born in Rochester, New York, on November 20, 1835, Steele attended local schools for his baccalaureate education before earning his MD in 1859 from Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia. He became a demonstrator of anatomy at Buffalo Medical College and then served as a surgeon in the Union Army for the extent of the Civil War. In 1867, Steele moved to St. Louis and decided to devote himself entirely to orthopedic surgery, becoming one of the first physicians in the West to limit his practice to this burgeoning field. Steele joined the faculty of Beaumont Medical College – and later Missouri Medical College – as a professor of orthopedic surgery. When the Missouri Medical College merged with the St. Louis Medical College to form the Medical Department of Washington University in 1899, Steele became chair of the Orthopedics Department, a position he retained until 1910.

Steele was also a charter member of the American Orthopedic Association, serving as its president in 1893 and chair of its membership committee from 1895 until 1910. After the death of his two-year-old son and wife, Steele became particularly interested in the treatment of children with physical disabilities. In 1884, his dream of a children’s hospital was realized with the opening of the Augusta Free Children’s Hospital. Space constraints necessitated the sponsorship of a new benefactor and consequently the hospital was renamed the Martha Parsons Free Hospital in 1890. This facility then merged with St. Louis Children’s Hospital in 1910. Steele became bedridden in his advanced age and died in St. Louis on January 7, 1917.

Cowdry, Nathaniel Harrington, 1849-1925

  • 11104328

Nathaniel Harrington Cowdry was a Banker and Botanist born in Torrington Devon, England. He married Anna Leaycraft Ingham (1852–1890) on 9 Jun 1887 in Paget, Bermuda. Their son Edmund Vincent Cowdry was born on 18 Jul 1888 in Fort MacLeod, Willow Creek, Alberta, Canada, Anna died two years later in Bermuda. For more information on the family bank in Fort MacLeod see Cowdry Family fonds finding aid, Glenbow Museum, accessed December 1, 2017 ǂb finding aid (born 1849, moved to Canada, founded a bank, died 1925) http://www.glenbow.org/collections/search/findingAids/archhtm/cowdry.cfm

Sources: https://www.ancestrylibrary.com/family-tree/person/tree/166044816/person/122153938536/facts?ssrc=&queryId=07d6d52f0af8691205d31cf094286d83&ml_rpos=2

Scott, Wendell G., 1905-1972

  • 1396767
  • Person
  • 1905-1972

Wendell Scott (1905-1972) contributed much to the fields of radiology and cancer research. Born on July 19, 1905, in Boulder, Colorado, Scott earned his BA from the University of Colorado in 1928. In 1932, he attained his MD from Washington University School of Medicine. Scott completed his internship at Barnes Hospital between 1933 and 1934 and then became an instructor at Washington University School of Medicine, advancing to a full professor of clinical radiology in 1956. Throughout his career, Scott was associated with Washington University's Department of Radiology (known as the Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology). At the Mallinckrodt Institute, he helped develop radiographic kymography and rapid film changers for diagnostic radiographic use. He constructed a kymograph to determine its practical, clinical value in examining the heart, chest, and abdomen.

Scott also served in the U.S. Naval Reserve, eventually rising to the rank of rear admiral. He joined the Naval Reserve in 1936 and served on active duty between 1941 and 1946. He continued to serve the Naval Reserve as a Consultant in Radiology to the Surgeon General of the Navy and was promoted to the rank of rear admiral in 1959. In 1970, President Nixon commissioned Scott for the National Cancer Advisory Board, whose recommendations spurred the enactment of the National Cancer Act of 1971. Scott was a member of a number of radiological and cancer organizations. He served as president of the American Cancer Society from 1963 to 1964 and also headed the American Roentgen Ray Society from 1958 to 1957.

The author of over 150 scientific articles, Scott also served as editor-in-chief of Your Radiologist and editor of Planning Guide for Radiological Installations, Cancer, and Genetics, Radiobiology, and Radiology. Scott received numerous awards and accolades for his contributions to the medical field, including the Gold Medal of the St. Louis Medical Society, the President’s Medal of the American Roetgen Ray Society, the Gold Medal of the American College of Radiology, the National Award of the American Cancer Society, and distinguished alumni awards from the University of Colorado and Washington University. Scott succumbed to the very disease he devoted his life to studying, dying of kidney cancer on May 4, 1972, in St. Louis.

Gest, Howard

  • 1830390
  • Person
  • 1921-2012

Howard Gest received his B.A. in Bacteriology from the University of California at Los Angeles in 1942. During his undergraduate studies, he worked with Salvador E. Luria and Max Delbruck (who along with Alfred D. Hershey won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1969 for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses) doing research on bacterial viruses at the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory in New York. Gest began graduate work with Delbruck at Vanderbilt University, but World War II interrupted his studies. At that point he accepted a position to work on the Manhattan Project with the eminent physical chemist Charles Coryell at the University of Chicago, and later at Oak Ridge, TN.

In 1946, Gest became Martin Kamen’s first graduate student at Washington University. Martin Kamen was a professor in Biochemistry at the Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine. During Gest’s graduate work with Kamen, he became associated with Alfred Hershey in the Department of Bacteriology and Immunology at the School of Medicine. Gest received his Ph.D. in Microbiology from Washington University in 1949.

Gest was a faculty member at Western Reserve University School of Medicine from 1949 to 1959. Gest returned to Washington University as a faculty member in 1959. He was also a member of the Interdepartmental Committee on Molecular Biology. He remained a professor until 1966 when he joined the faculty at Indiana University, Bloomington. As of 2006, he served as Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Microbiology and Adjunct Professor of History and Philosophy of Science.

Professor, and Professor Emeritus of Microbiology, Indiana University; studied bacterial photosynthesis; died April 24, 2012, Bloomington, Indiana)
Howard Gest Papers (WUA00074), 1936-2011 WUA/04/wua00074 URL: http://archon.wulib.wustl.edu/index.php?p=collections/controlcard&id=370

Moore, Sherwood. 1880-1963

  • 1968585
  • Person
  • 1880-1963

Sherwood Moore was the first professor of radiology at Washington University School of Medicine and among the earliest to hold such a position in the nation. A native of Lynchburg, Virginia, Moore studied for a year at the University of Virginia before transferring to Washington University. Moore received his MD from the Washington University Medical Department in 1905. He was an intern at St. Louis city Hospital (1905-1906), and a resident in obstetrics at Washington University Hospital (1906-1907). After several years of practice in St. Louis and a year in Africa (1914), Moore decided to specialize in radiology. He received additional training in x-ray techniques in Richmond and in Boston. In 1917, Moore returned to Washington University as assistant in surgery and roentgenologist to Barnes Hospital. He was promoted to full professor in 1927.

With the founding of the Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology in 1930, Moore was named its first director, continuing in that capacity as chief roentgenologist to all the hospitals affiliated with Washington University. He made vital contributions in those years to research led by Evarts A. Graham in the diagnosis and surgical treatment of diseases of the chest and digestive tract. He was a distinguished member of numerous professional societies in this country and abroad.

Graham, Evarts A. (Evarts Ambrose), 1883-1957

  • 2242328
  • Person
  • 1883-1957

Evarts Ambrose Graham was born in 1883 and raised in Chicago where his father was Professor of Surgery at Rush Medical College and a surgeon on the staff of Presbyterian Hospital. Dr. Graham's academic training included a liberal arts degree from Princeton University, an M.D. from Rush Medical College, an internship at Presbyterian Hospital in Chicago, a fellowship in pathology at Rush Medical College, and two years of study as a part-time student in chemistry at the University of Chicago. In 1916, Graham married Helen Tredway, a graduate student in chemistry at the University of Chicago, and for two years the couple lived in Mason City, Iowa, where he was a surgeon in a private clinic.

During World War I Graham was commissioned to serve as a captain in the Army Medical Corps, where, because of his broad background in medicine, surgery, and chemistry, he was appointed to the Empyema Commission. The specific task of this commission was to investigate pleural cavity abscesses called empyema, a form of post-influenza disease which, in some camps, was killing as many am 90 percent of the soldiers who suffered from it. Graham contended that the chief cause of death from empyema was not the disease itself, but too early surgical intervention. He advised that the drainage of the abscesses be delayed until after the pneumonia had subsided, and the Surgeon General permitted Graham to treat a group of empyema patients at Camp Lee, Virginia, in accordance with this principle. Among the group of patients so treated, the mortality rate quickly dropped to about four percent. The reputation thus gained later won Graham an appointment as Professor of Surgery at Washington University School of Medicine in 1919.

As Bixby Professor of Surgery and Surgeon-in-Chief of the Barnes and St. Louis Children's Hospitals from 1919 to 1951, Graham brought international fame to the Washington University School of Medicine. His medical achievements included the development of cholecystograpy (the x-ray visualization of the biliary tract), the first successful total pneumonectomy (the removal of an entire lung), and the experimental production of skin cancer in mice by the application of cigarette tars obtained from an automatic smoking machine.

Between 1925 and 1954, Graham served on various medical committees of the National Research Council. He also serve on on a number of Government committees including the Committee to Study the Medical Department of the Army (1942), the President's Committee to Study the Health Needs of the Nation (1952), and the Medical Task Force of the Second Hoover Commission (1953-1954). Additionally, Dr. Graham was president of various surgical and medical associations including the American Association for Thoracic Surgery (1928), the American Surgical Association (1937), the American College of Surgeons (1940-1941), the Interstate Post-graduate Medical Association of North America (1948), and the XVI Congress of the International Society of Surgery (1955). He also edited the Yearbook of General Surgery (1926-1957) and served as a member of the editorial and advisory boards of the Archives of Surgery (1920-1945) and the Annals of Surgery (1935-1957).

As a full-time professor of surgery, Graham was able to fulfill a long standing ambition to practice surgery, to engage in medical research, and to train young doctors. He trained outstanding physicians, and his students came to hold top hospital and teaching positions the world over. Such prominent surgeons as Warren H. Cole, Nathan A. Womack, Brian Blades, Thomas H. Burford, and many others are tributes to Graham's ability as a teacher. Upon his retirement in 1951, Graham became Bixby Professor Emeritus of Surgery at Washington University. He died in 1957.

Cowdry, E. V. (Edmund Vincent)

  • 296481
  • Person
  • 1888-1975

The interests and achievements of Edmund Vincent Cowdry (1888-1975) combined several careers in one. He was born in Alberta province, Canada, and grew up in Ontario. He studied at the University of Toronto, receiving his BA in 1909. Continuing with graduate training in anatomy, he received a Ph.D. from the University of Chicago in 1913. He was on the faculty of Johns Hopkins University from 1913 to 1917. From 1917 to 1921, he was among the first professors at Peking Union Medical College, established by the Rockefeller Foundation in Beijing, China. From 1921 until 1928, Cowdry was an associate member of the Rockefeller Institute, the medical research center in Manhattan that is now known as Rockefeller University. Beginning with that period, he made several research trips to African countries. In South Africa, he was instrumental in isolating the organism (thereafter called Cowdria ruminantium) which causes heartwater in animals. In Tunisia, he investigated the etiology of malaria. In Kenya, his chief interest was yellow fever.

E.V. Cowdry joined Washington University School of Medicine in 1928 as head of the Cytology program and co-chair of the Department of Anatomy, and for that purpose moved to St. Louis. The city became his and his family's home for the remainder of his life, although he continued his earlier pattern of extended leaves and foreign travel. He became a United States citizen in 1930. Later he became director of research at Barnard Free Skin and Cancer Hospital (1939), then an independent hospital, but which he guided toward eventual integration with Washington University School of Medicine. In 1941 he became the formal head of the Department of Anatomy (1941). Cowdry's chief laboratory research interests in those years came to focus on cancer. He was noted not only for work in the laboratory, but also for his advocacy of increased public support for programs to fight malignant diseases. He was also widely known for coordinating interdisciplinary work in gerontology and is considered today to be one of the founders of contemporary scientific approaches in that branch of applied medicine and social work. E.V. Cowdry stepped down as head of anatomy in 1950, accepting in its place the position of director of the Wernse Cancer Research Laboratory at the school. He was named professor emeritus and director emeritus of the Wernse laboratory in 1960. Cowdry remained active in research in the university and at Jewish Hospital of St. Louis until his death in 1975.

Veeder, Borden S.

  • 4193895
  • Person
  • 1883-1970

Borden Veeder was instrumental in developing the Department of Pediatrics at Washington University School of Medicine. Born in Fonda, New York, on August 21, 1883, Veeder attended Colgate Academy and College in Hamilton, New York. He earned his MD from the University of Pennsylvania in 1907 and studied in Berlin for a year before returning to the University of Pennsylvania Hospital, where he served as a demonstrator in pathology. In 1911, Veeder moved to St. Louis to assist John Howland in fostering Washington University's Pediatrics Department. During World War I, Veeder commanded Base Hospital Unit No. 21 in Rouen, France, an American military hospital administrated largely by Washington University medical personnel. Veeder remained at Washington University School of Medicine throughout his career, attaining emeritus status in 1952.

In addition to his duties on behalf of Washington University, Veeder also contributed greatly to the pediatrics field. He was a member of the American Pediatrics Society (president, 1934), American Board of Pediatrics (president, 1933-1941), American Academy of Pediatrics (president, 1943), and the National Board of Medical Examiners (president, 1947-1949). Veeder also fomented the publication of a national academic journal in the field of pediatrics, Journal of Pediatrics, for which he served as editor from 1932 until 1958. Veeder's own publications include Preventive Pediatrics and The Adolescent: His Conflicts and Escapes (with Sidney I. Schwab).

During his career in St. Louis, Veeder maintained a private practice while also serving as a consulting physician to St. Louis Children's Hospital, in addition to his responsibilities to the Pediatrics Department at Washington University School of Medicine. He was also active in the St. Louis chapter of the American Red Cross, serving as chapter chairman from 1942 until 1945. Veeder passed away on June 24, 1970.

Terry, Robert J. (Robert James), 1871-1966

  • 6089002
  • Person
  • 1871-1966

Robert James Terry was born in St. Louis, Missouri on January 24, 1871. He finished his pre-medical education at Cornell University in New York in 1892. Terry was accepted into the class of 1895 at the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University. However, after one year of study, financial troubles forced him to leave Columbia University. He returned to St. Louis and completed his medical education at Missouri Medical College, graduating cum laude in 1895. Following graduation, he established a private practice in St. Louis and was appointed as Assistant Director in Anatomy at Missouri Medical College.

In 1897, Terry married Grace Valle Speck. Soon after the wedding, the Terry's moved to Scotland for a year where Dr. Terry studied at Edinburgh University. Upon his return to St. Louis, Terry was promoted to Lecturer at Missouri Medical College. He held this position until 1899, when Missouri Medical College merged with the Medical Department of Washington University. With the 1899 merger came a promotion to Assistant Professor in Anatomy. The following year Terry was promoted again to Full Professor and Head of the Department of Anatomy. Terry would maintain his full professorship for 41 years until his retirement in 1941.

In 1903, Dr. Terry and his family traveled to Freiberg, Germany where he took up the study of anatomy at the University of Freiberg under the instruction of Professors Gaupp, Keibel, and Widersheim. In 1906, he was named an Austin Teaching Fellow in Histology and Embryology at Harvard University. He returned to St. Louis in 1907 and continued in his role as Professor and Head of the Department of Anatomy at Washington University. Three years later in 1910, the medical school underwent a major reorganization and all department heads were asked to step down. Upon the completion of the reorganization, Terry was the only full time department head asked to remain in his previous position.

During the First World War, Terry acted as the dean of the Officers School of Oral and Plastic Surgery in St. Louis. In 1921, he was awarded with the honorary title of Anthropologist from Barnes Hospital. He maintained the title of Anthropologist Emeritus until his death. In 1956, he was awarded an honorary doctor of law degree from Washington University. Dr. Terry retired from active teaching in 1941 but remained an active researcher until 1958.

During his tenure at Washington University, Terry initiated and assembled one of the largest skeletal research collections in the United States. Beginning in 1924, he started to gather and preserve skeletons from some of the cadavers used in the medical school anatomy courses. As his collection grew, he became more particular about the skeletons chosen, often identifying them prior to dissection and marking them for soft tissue dissection only, a precaution taken in order to preserve the bones. After the dissections, Terry would prepare the skeletons, removing all but a small amount of fat. He believed that the remaining fat would help to ensure better preservation of the bones, a fact proven true by the continuous good condition of the collection. Following Dr. Terry's retirement from teaching in 1941, care and preservation of the collection was given over to Mildred Trotter. Dr. Trotter continued to enlarge the collection until 1964, when it was indefinitely loaned to the National Museum of Natural History and the Smithsonian Institution.

In addition to his work at Washington University and his dedication to anatomical education, Terry was also an active member of a number of local and national organizations. He was a founding member of both the American Journal of Anatomy and the American Association of Physical Anthropology, an organization for which he later served as President and Associate Editor of the affiliated journal. Terry also served as president of the St. Louis Academy of Science and the editor of the Washington University Medical Alumni Quarterly. He was also very active in naturalist circles, founding organizations such as the St. Louis Naturalist Club in 1898 and the St. Louis Bird Club in 1901. He also collaborated in the establishment of a migratory bird treaty between the United States and Great Britain and assisted in the founding of the St. Louis Bird Sanctuary. Due to his dedication and passion for nature, Terry was recognized by the City of St. Louis in 1959, when a park at the corner of Eads and Compton was named for him. Dr. Terry remained an active member of both the medical and naturalist communities until his death in 1966.

Minnich, Virginia

  • 609979
  • Person
  • 1910-1996

Virginia Minnich was born January 24, 1910, in Zanesville, Ohio. She graduated with a bachelor's degree from Ohio State University in 1937 and earned a master's degree from Iowa State College in 1938. Minnich's expertise was in hematology and nutrition. She studied iron metabolism, platelet function, abnormal hemoglobins, thalassemia and morphology/hematology. He work led to the discovery of hemoglobin E and the elucidation of the glutathionine synthesis pathway. She also created wide-ranging audiovisual programs on all aspects of blood and bone marrow, which have been used worldwide.

Minnich spent her entire medical career at Washington University School of Medicine, starting as a hematology research assistant in 1939. In 1958, she was promoted to research associate. She was elevated to full professor in 1974. Minnich spent 1964-65 in Turkey on a Fulbright Award. She was a member of the Foundation for Clinical Research, the American Society of Hematology and the International Society of Hematology.

Loeb, Leo, 1869-1959

  • 6195736
  • Person
  • 1869-1959

Leo Loeb was born in Mayen, Germany on September 21, 1869 and studied at the Universities of Heidelberg, Berlin, Basle, and Freiburg. He received his medical degree from the University of Zurich in 1897. Upon graduation he moved to Chicago, Illinois at the age of 27 and briefly established a private practice. After only 10 months of working as a private practitioner, he decided to devote more of his time to research, so he joined the Department of Pathology at the University of Illinois. In 1904, Dr. Loeb accepted a position at the University of Pennsylvania as Professor of Experimental Pathology.

Dr. Loeb moved to Saint Louis in 1910 to become the Director of the Department of Pathology at the Barnard Skin and Cancer Hospital. His long association with the Washington University School of Medicine began in 1915, when he became Professor of Comparative Pathology. Following the resignation of Eugene Opie, he became Professor of Pathology and head of the department in 1924.

Dr. Loeb was a charter member of the American Association for Cancer Research and served as president of that association in 1911. Among the many honors he received throughout his career was his election to the National Academy of Sciences in 1937. Dr. Loeb retired as emeritus Professor of Pathology that year, but even at the age of 72, he and continued his experimental investigations and focused a majority of his time writing. His book titled The Biological Basis of Individuality was published in 1945, and at the time of his death in 1959, Loeb was working on two additional books. One is on mental processes and titled Psychical Goods or The Imponderables. The other unfinished book is concerned with the causes and nature of cancer.

His autobiography in Ingles' A dozen doctors (1963) gives fascinating details of his life in Germany, Switzerland, and the United States.

Blair, Vilray Papin, 1871-1955

  • 6579956
  • Person
  • 1871-1955

Vilray Papin Blair is most known for his pioneering work in plastic surgery. A native of St. Louis, Blair graduated from Christian Brothers College in 1890 and subsequently enrolled in the St. Louis Medical College. There he was greatly influenced by Elisha Hall Gregory, a professor of surgery. He graduated in 1893 and began an internship at Mullanphy Hospital under distinguished surgeon Paul Yoer Tupper.

In 1894 Blair was appointed instructor with the Anatomy Department of St. Louis Medical College (which had joined Washington University in 1891). In 1896 he took a leave from medicine to join the crew of a merchant vessel bound for Europe, a decision that led to him becoming a ship surgeon for a journey to Brazil and then a military surgeon for British troops sailing to West Africa.

Upon his return to St. Louis in 1900, Blair established a private surgical practice and resumed teaching at the School of Medicine. He was named to the visiting staff of St. Louis City Hospital in 1910. In 1917 Blair joined the U.S. Army Corps entering World War I and was named chief of oral and plastic surgery. On his return to St. Louis he was active in the Medical Reserve Corps and served as attending specialist in plastic surgery at the Jefferson Barracks Veterans Hospital.

Blair served as assistant professor of clinical surgery at the School of Medicine in 1922 and was named professor in 1927. He also served as professor of oral surgery at the Washington University School of Dentistry. He became an emeritus professor of both schools in 1941. Throughout his career, Blair published many influential books and articles in the areas of plastic and oral surgery. Another foremost achievement was his leadership in creating the American Board of Plastic Surgery, which helped seal his place as a pioneer in establishing plastic surgery as a unique branch of medicine.

Davis, Hallowell, 1896-1992

  • 70808
  • Person
  • 1896-1992

Hallowell Davis was born in New York City on August 31, 1896. He studied at Harvard University, receiving a B.A. there in 1918 and an M.D. in 1922. Davis's interest in electrophysiology developed while doing post-graduate research in England under Lord Adrian. In 1923, Hallowell Davis joined the Department of Physiology at the Harvard Medical School. His research concentrated on the electrophysiology of nerves. He became associated with the informal group of scientists known as "axonologists," which also included Joseph Erlanger, Herbert Gasser, and others of WUSM. In the 1930s Davis began concentrating on problems relating to hearing, but was also active in research on electrical activity in the brain. He contributed to the development of one of the first ink-writing electroencephalographs. During World War II he did vital war-related research on human tolerance to loud sounds and on the development of hearing aids.

Hearing aid research brought Davis into frequent contact with Central Institute for the Deaf, which was a subcontractor to a Harvard project. In 1946 he accepted an offer to establish a Research Department at CID and also to join the WUSM Departments of Physiology and Otolaryngology.

Among his first major projects in St. Louis was measurement of effectiveness of fenestration operations pioneered by Theodore Walsh. Davis's use of speech in these hearing tests was the beginning of speech audiometry. He became a leading figure in the development of the first American standards for audiometers and the adoption of the international zero reference level as part of that standard. He continued research under several contracts with the U.S. Armed Forces, contributing to work in ultrasonics, mechanical shock, and other areas. In the 1960s he was a member of the National Research Council's Committee on SST (super-sonic transport) and Sonic Boom.

Hallowell Davis retired officially in 1965, but remained active as CID Director of Research Emeritus and Professor Emeritus of Otolaryngology. In 1976 he was awarded the National Medal of Science by President Gerald R. Ford. Davis died in 1992.

Shaffer, Philip A.

  • 9317334
  • Person
  • 1881-1960

Philip A. Shaffer (1881-1960) was born in Martinsburg, West Virginia, son of Joseph H. and Hannah Anderson Shaffer. After preliminary education in Martinsburg, he entered the University of West Virginia at the age of 15 and, after receiving his AB, attended Harvard University, obtaining his PhD in biological chemistry in 1904. Shaffer married Nan Jefferson Evans in 1904. The couple had three children, Jane Jefferson Prince of St. Louis, Nancy Elizabeth Shaffer, and Philip Anderson Shaffer, Jr.

While working for his doctorate at Harvard, he was a research biological chemist at McLean Hospital in Waverly, Massachusetts, 1900-1903. After graduation from Harvard, Shaffer became Assistant and Instructor of Chemical Pathology at Cornell University Medical College in New York, remaining there for six years. In 1910 he was appointed Professor of Biological Chemistry and Head of the Department at Washington University School of Medicine, a position he retained until 1946. He twice served as Dean of the School, from 1915 to 1919 and from 1937 to 1946. He was Distinguished Service Professor of Biochemistry from 1946 to 1952, becoming Emeritus in 1951 when he retired from the Medical School Faculty. His teaching career was interrupted briefly during World War I when he served as a Major in the U.S. Army, A.E.F., being given the responsibility for the diets of the overseas personnel. Shaffer was a member of the following societies: Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science, National Academy of Sciences, American Society of Biological Chemists (Secretary 1913-1915, President 1923-1924), American Philosophical Society, Phi Beta Kappa, Sigma Xi, Phi Kappa Psi, Alpha Tau Omega.

Shaffer first worked with Otto Folin and his first scientific publication, in 1901, concerned the quantitative determination of uric acid in urine. Later papers were published which dealt both with broad concepts of metabolism over a wide field, and with specific chemical methods of study. One of his early important contributions was his study of metabolism in typhoid fever, which lead to the development of the Coleman-Shaffer high caloric diet in the treatment of that disease. Interest then shifted to relationships of carbohydrate and fat metabolism, with special emphasis on the significance of ketosis. In these studies he collaborated with many of his students and junior staff members - Williams McKim Marriott, Roger S. Hubbard, Michael Somogyi, Alexis F. Hartmann, Edward A. Doisy, Theodore E. Friedemann, and Ethel Ronzoni. Of special interest, Shaffer developed a rapid method of measuring the sugar in small amounts of blood. Banting and Best used his finding in their discovery and assay of insulin. A case arose not long thereafter where insulin was needed to save the lives of two infants in the St. Louis Children's Hospital. Shaffer followed Banting and Best's method. That experience quickly led to understanding that strong acid is needed in the original extraction from the pancreas, and that insulin is a protein and it could be highly concentrated by isoelectric precipitation. At that time, such facts were unknown, either to the Toronto investigators or to the Eli Lilly scientists, who were encountering difficulty in getting consistently potent insulin preparations by the original method. Shaffer's contributions hastened the commercial production of insulin. In his later years, Shaffer became interested in oxidation-reduction reactions, and in this area his contributions were also of significance.

Shaffer published a total of 72 scientific papers. Yet it is probably fair to state that by far the greatest part of his time and efforts were concerned with administrative issues of the School and University that came before him as a member of the Senate and Executive Faculty and as Dean.

Those of us who were privileged to work with Shaffer admired him most for his extraordinary ability to perceive unusual talent in very young people, a trait which led to many valuable appointments to the School of Medicine (W. McKim Marriott, E. A. Doisy, Evarts A. Graham, E. W. West, Carl and Gerty Cori, David Barr, Willard Allen, Barry Wood, R. A. Moore, to mention just a few), for his tremendous courage in never wavering from the high principles which he set for himself and the School of Medicine, and for his extreme loyalty to the School and his utter unselfishness in working for it.

Shaffer died December 4, 1960.

*Adapted from a statement written for the Executive Faculty meeting of December, 1960 by Alexis F. Hartmann, Sr., Carl F. Cori, and Joseph Erlanger. Abbreviated and edited for this introduction November 2001.

O'Leary, James L., 1904-1975

  • 9667769
  • Person
  • 1904-1975

James L. O'Leary was born on December 8, 1904 in Tomahawk, Wisconsin. At the age of two, his family moved to San Antonio, Texas. He began his undergraduate career at the University of Texas in San Antonio in 1920. After two years, he transferred to the University of Chicago, where he was awarded his B.S. in Biology in 1925. Following his matriculation, he began work on his Ph.D. in Anatomy. During his Ph.D. studies, he worked as an Instructor in Anatomy at the university. After receiving his doctorate in 1928, he accepted the position of Assistant Professor of Anatomy at the Washington University School of Medicine. In addition to his role at Washington University, O'Leary he continued his studies in Chicago, pursuing a medical degree during the summer months. He received his M.D. from the University of Chicago in 1931.

After graduation, O'Leary moved to St. Louis and began to work full time at the university. In 1933, he was promoted to Associate Professor of Anatomy and, in 1941, was jointly appointed to as an Assistant Professor of Neurology in the developing Neurology Division. He held both of these positions until 1946. In 1941, O'Leary joined the United States Medical Corps. He was assigned to the Army School of Military Neuropsychiatry at Mason General Hospital in New York, where he taught neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and electroencephalography. He was honorably discharged in 1946, with the rank of Lieutenant Colonel. Upon his return, O'Leary was appointed as an Associate Professor and head of the Neurology Division. Under his leadership, the division was granted full department status in 1963. During his time with the department, he extensively studied nerve physiology, pain mechanisms, and the clinical and electroencephalographic aspects of epilepsy. He continued to serve as head of the department until his retirement from teaching and administration in 1971. He continued his work with the university in the role of Emeritus Professor of Neurology and Neurological Surgery.

Throughout his career, Dr. O'Leary was involved with a number of professional organizations. He served as president of the American Neurological Society, American Electroencephalographic Society, and the American Epilepsy Society. In 1971, he received the American Neurological Association's Jacoby Award, the highest honor awarded by the association. James L. O'Leary died on May 25, 1975 at the age of 70 years.

21st General Hospital

  • Corporate body
  • 1942-1945

The 21st General Hospital was the successor to Base Hospital 21, among the first American military hospitals to serve in France in World War I. Its officer corps had been drawn in large part from the medical staff of Washington University Medical School and Barnes Hospital (See RG006, Base Hospital 21). After returning to the United States in 1919, Base Hospital 21 was designated a Reserve Officer Corps unit of the General Hospital category. When war broke out again in Europe, the executive officer of the reserve unit was Lee D. Cady, M.D., a 1922 graduate of Washington University School of Medicine and member of the clinical faculty in medicine.

Following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, mobilization orders were sent to reserve units throughout the country. Cady, now lieutenant colonel, and an advance party of other medical officers from St. Louis, traveled to Ft. Benning, Georgia. On January 12, 1942, the unit was activated as General Hospital 21. The ranks were increased by officers and enlisted men already in training at Ft. Benning. On February 1 they were joined by fifty-five nurses from Barnes Hospital and the Washington University School of Nursing led by Lt. Lucille S. Spalding. Col. Robert E. Thomas, a Regular Army medical officer, was named as unit commander on February 15. Before General Hospital 21 departed from Ft. Benning, Col. Thomas was replaced as commander by Col. Charles F. Davis.

On October 20, 1942 the unit embarked from New York aboard the SS Mariposa, bound for England. Following a zigzag course through the rough U-boat-infested waters of the North Atlantic, the vessel managed to reach its destination, Liverpool, in safety. From Liverpool, the 21st was sent by train and truck to a billet in a suburb of Birmingham, Pheasey Farms Estate. While in England, plans were announced that the hospital would be a part of "Operation Torch," an Allied offensive to establish control of North Africa. In Liverpool again, the 21st boarded the SS Monarch of Bermuda, which sailed in a convoy south along the Atlantic coast of Europe. From Gibraltar, the convoy crossed the Mediterranean to Algeria and landed at the Port of Mers-el-Kebir, near Oran, on December 6, 1942. Algeria had newly come under Free French control and thus its strategic resources were at Allied disposal.

The 21st bivouacked at Oran. From there, late in December, the unit was transported into the interior of Algeria. The hospital was assigned to establish operations at a hot water spa. The place, called Bou Hanifia, was located at an oasis in the rocky desert plateau sixty miles south of Oran. The largest building in Bou Hanifia, the Grand Hotel, was chosen to house the main medical and surgical functions. Several smaller hotels in town were also taken over for hospital uses. A solitary first patient was admitted December 24. Hospital functions began in earnest on January 2, 1943, when 472 beds were ready. For a time, there was a critical supply shortage. Makeshift instruments were used in the first days of surgical operations. Medicines and bandages were administered very sparingly. The problem was gradually alleviated as more and more Allied convoys reached the Mediterranean Base Section.

Col. Davis was unexpectedly transferred to another unit in late January. Left to assume temporary command was Lt. Col. Cady. Weeks went by without a replacement for Davis named. Ultimately, with the help of friends higher up, Cady was promoted to colonel and given permanent command of the hospital. Cady revealed a considerable talent for public relations. His many efforts to boost morale and to cement good relations with U.S. and Allied commanders paid off in terms of hospital efficiency. Bed capacity steadily increased. When all appropriate spaces in the hotels were full, temporary buildings were erected to house additional wards. A rehabilitation section was established for special treatment of the wounded. Battles in Tunisia in the spring of 1943 led to capture of thousands of German and Italian troops. Up to 200 of the enemy wounded were treated by the 21st at one time. Handling of prisoners of war necessarily increased the complexity of military operations at Bou Hanifia. At its largest while in Algeria, the 21st had over 4,000 beds. The staff was pressed to handle casualties from the American and British forces that invaded Sicily in July. The number of patients gradually began to decrease once the Allies conquered all of Sicily and launched attacks on the Italian mainland. In November, the order came to "cease construction" at Bou Hanifia and restore facilities of the spa to their prewar functions. In a year of service in the North African campaign, the hospital treated 20,989 patients.

With hospital equipment packed into more than three thousand crates, the unit gathered again at Oran. The destination this time was Naples, Italy. The nurses sailed December 4, 1943 on the hospital ship Shamrock. The remainder of the unit boarded the British transport vessel HMS Cameronia two days later. Col. Cady found himself to be the ranking American officer on board and thus in charge of all U.S. personal during the voyage. In Naples, the Allies converted a fair-grounds, the "Prima mostra delle terre italiane d"oltremare," into a medical center and assigned its operation to several units, including the 21st. Near the fairgrounds was another tourist attraction, Terme di Agnano, like Bou Hanifia a hot water spa. There the officers of the 21st were billeted.

After the relative comforts of Bou Hanifia, Naples afflicted substantial hardships again on the unit. Fierce fighting continued only a short distance away. Cold rains drenched the region throughout December and January. A good portion of the fairgrounds buildings were badly bomb damaged. Tents were used to shelter many of the sick and wounded while repairs were being made. During these difficult days, members of the unit were themselves hospitalized with upper respiratory infections and fatigue. But, despite all these problems, the hospital was able to regain operating efficiency within days of arrival at the fairgrounds. In January 1944 Allied forces invaded the central Italian coastline at Anzio. In the weeks that followed, attacks were launched on German positions in the mountains, notably at Cassino. Trainloads and shiploads of casualties from these engagements, as many as three hundred at a time, were brought to the hospital, straining staff and bed capacity to the utmost. In addition, the unit was called upon to help stem a typhus epidemic in Naples. The most critical period of service to the Italian campaign came in June, with battles leading to the fall of Rome. Bed capacity of the 21st at that time reached three thousand.

The success of the D Day invasion of Normandy (June 6, 1944) permitted Allied offensives in southern France in August. By September, territory as far north as Lorraine had been liberated from German control. Orders were sent for the 21st to follow and establish operations anew on French soil. On September 25, the unit pulled out of the Naples facility. Just short of 15,000 new patient records had been added to hospital statistics. The 21st was recognized as one of the finest medical units in the European theater, and not only by Americans. For assistance to the Free French forces, Gen Alphonse Juin awarded the 21st a French unit citation.

The new location for the 21st was a psychiatric hospital near Mirecourt, south of Nancy. Once again, the unit found itself uncomfortably close to a battle zone. On October 21, 1944, less than a month after the 21st had left Naples, it was accepting patients anew. The psychiatric hospital buildings had been in the final stages of construction when the war began. They were not damaged during the German occupation. Now, with finishing touches by American engineers, the facility was admirably suited to the needs of the 21st It boasted spacious wards and central heat. By November, over three thousand patients were being treated daily.

The 21st endured perhaps its hardest test in late December 1944, during the "Battle of the Bulge." The surprise German counteroffensive breached Allied lines in Belgium and Luxembourg and, for then critical days, threatened a new invasion of France. Plans to evacuate the hospital were hastily drawn up. On December 26, the buildings at Ravenel were strafed by enemy planes and one bomb hit the grounds, causing slight damage. On that very day the German drive was stopped. The hospital, of course, accepted a great many of the wounded from the battle. The pressure continued as the struggle crossed the border into Germany itself. In January 1945 the 21st expanded to 4,040 beds. On January 7 the hospital treated its 50,000th patient. The facilities at Ravenel were used to their fullest extent. Sick and wounded were cared for even in the attics of buildings. Ambulatory patients were pressed into service on the wards and in the hospital headquarters.

The early months of 1945 gradually brought an end to this crisis. The long-awaited end of the war in Europe, V-E Day, came May 8. But victory brought a new variety of challenges to the hospital command. The number of patients dwindled, but many severely wounded remained for treatment. Meanwhile, the medical and nursing officers were needed for other assignments and were rapidly transferred out of the unit, creating staffing shortages. Col. Cady and his remaining cadre struggled to maintain hospital services despite daily changes in the duty roster.

On September 20, the U.S. Army bestowed its meritorious Service Unit Plaque on the 21st. The citation read, in part: "The professional skill and tireless devotion to duty demonstrated by the personnel of the 21st General hospital were in keeping with the highest traditions of the Armed Forces of the United States." The award, it is true, came too late to be distributed personally to most hospital personnel. The portions of the staff remaining at Ravenel had, by this date, been relieved of medical duties and were packing for the return voyage.

Final statistics compiled by the unit were impressive. They indicate that the 21st admitted 65,503 patients in its nearly three years of overseas service. The total surgical operations numbered 33,440. Dental treatments amounted to 69,375. The hospital laboratories had run 246,805 tests. Blood transfusions given were 11,258. The Convalescent and Rehabilitation Section treated 21,175 patients. In three years, over 2,200 persons had served as members of the 21st.

After a short period at a staging area near Marseilles, Col. Cady and his staff boarded the victory ship Westminster, which sailed October 28. The ship landed at Boston November 7. The members of the 21st were taken to Camp Myles Standish, given an official welcome, and reoriented for their imminent return to civilian life.

The 21st ceased to exist as an active military unit at this point (it has since been revived as a U.S. Army Reserve General Hospital). Yet the careers of those who had served with the hospital during the war continued profoundly to be influenced by the experience. Cady became a director of Veterans Administration hospitals in Dallas and Houston. Many of the other medical and nursing officers returned to St. Louis, a substantial number to resume practice at the Washington University Medical Center.

*Source: "The Spa, the Fairgrounds, and the Psychiatric Hospital; the 21st General Hospital in World War II," by Paul G. Anderson, Outlook, Spring 1982, 2-9.

Abrams, Morris

  • Person
  • 1913-1991

Dr. Morris Abrams was born in Chicago on January 7, 1913. He received his undergraduate degree in 1934 from the University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana, and his medical degree in 1937 from the University of Illinois School of Medicine in Chicago. Dr. Abrams served his internship at Butterworth Hospital in Grand Rapids, Michigan and had surgery and urology residencies at Mount Sinai Hospital in Cleveland and at Beth Israel Hospital in Boston.

During World War II, Dr. Abrams served in the U.S. Army as the division surgeon for General George Patton's 4th Armored Division. He retired from the army in 1945 with the rank of lieutenant colonel. After the war, Dr. Abrams worked at Harvard University from 1947 to 1949 before moving to St. Louis in 1950 to serve as the Chief of Urology at the Homer G. Phillips Hospital in north St. Louis. He was also on the staff at Barnes and Jewish Hospitals, and was chief of urology at Jewish from 1954 to 1963, and again from 1982 until he retired in 1987.

Results 1 to 20 of 4775