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Willard M. Allen (1904-1993) was an academic obstetrician-gynecologist. He studied organic chemistry at Hobart College before he went the University of Rochester in 1926 to study medicine. In 1927, he took time out from medical studies to do research with his anatomy professor, George W. Corner. Together, they monitored changes in the corpus luteum of rabbits. The corpus luteum produces progesterone, a hormone important to the maintenance of pregnancy. This hormone was unknown until Allen and Corner's discovery of it in their experiments. For this research, Allen earned a master's in science in 1929. After returning to his medical studies in 1930, he earned his M.D. in 1932. Allen and microchemist Oskar Wintersteiner were the first of four groups to isolate progesterone in 1933. After an internship and residency at Strong Memorial Hospital in Rochester, Allen joined the faculty of University of Rochester as Assistant Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology in 1936.
In 1940, Allen moved his gynecologic endocrine research operations to Washington University School of Medicine. At the time, he was the medical school's youngest department chair. He remained Department Chair and Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology for over 30 years. An early collaborator in the department was William H. Masters, M.D, of the famous Masters and Johnson research team. At Washington University, Dr. Allen's major discoveries were of the "Blue Color Test" for DHIA (dehydroisoandrosterone) in diagnosis of adrenal tumors and the development of the "Allen Correction." The Allen Correction was a simple mathematical formula which made possible the analysis of steroids and other compounds by colorimetry. Allen was the first to administer progesterone to human subjects for treatment of uterine bleeding. Outside the laboratory, his most famous contribution was the description of the "Allen-Masters" syndrome, defined as a laceration of ligaments causing abnormal mobility of the cervix.
After his retirement from Washington University in 1971, Willard M. Allen became Professor of Obstetrics at the University of Maryland. Dr. Allen later served as Associate Dean of the medical school at the University of Maryland from 1976-1982.
Jacob G. Probstein was a former chief of surgery at Jewish Hospital who is best known as the last team doctor for the St. Louis Browns and the first team doctor for the St. Louis Blues. After he was hired by the Blues in 1967, Probstein became a hockey fan and was a fixture at Blues hockey games well into his 90s, missing no more than a dozen home games each season until the last two years of his life prior to his death in 1993. Probstein also helped found the Missouri Cancer Commission in 1962 and wrote a book on the treatment of pancreatitis.
Harvey J.Howard (1880-1956) was the first chair of the Department of Ophthalmology at Washington University School of Medicine. He graduated with his medical degree from the University of Pennsylvania in 1908 and in 1910, Howard headed to China to serve a five year term as head of the Ophthalmology Department in the University Medical School at Canton Christian College. Upon his return to the U.S., Howard studied ophthalmologic pathology, specializing in congenital abnormalities of the eye, at Harvard University on a Rockefeller Foundation Scholarship, and was elected to the American Ophthalmological Society in 1917 for his work.
During WWI, Howard briefly served as a captain in the U.S. Army, where he developed the Howard-Dolman depth perception test for aviators. After his military service, he returned to China in 1917 as the head of the Department of Ophthalmology at Union Medical College in Beijing, an appointment that lasted until 1927. During his decade in Beijing, Howard conducted research on epithelial cells and organized a teaching program in which he arranged for many prominent ophthalmologists to guest teach. He also served as the ophthalmologist to Pu Yi, the boy emperor in the Forbidden City, from 1921 to 1925. In 1926, he and his son, Jim, were kidnapped by Manchurian bandits and held for $100,000 ransom. They were held for ten weeks and despite the gang's threats, Howard and his son escaped largely due to his fluent Chinese and by treating the kidnappers" medical ailments. Upon his release, Howard wrote Ten Weeks with Chinese Bandits, an accounting of his adventures during his captivity. The publication was translated into seven languages and went through eight printings.
In 1927, he was contacted by Washington University School of Medicine asking him to serve as the first Chair of the Department of Ophthalmology. He accepted the position and was instrumental in the construction of a new building devoted to ophthalmology. At the medical school, Howard was responsible for the development of a resident training program in ophthalmology and conducted research on trachoma among the Indians and aviation medicine. In addition to his teaching duties, Howard served as the medical director for the Missouri Commission for the Blind from 1931 to 1948 and entered private practice in 1934.
Herbert S. Gasser (1888-1963) was a physiologist who received (jointly with Joseph Erlanger) the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1944. He served on the faculty at Washington University School of Medicine, 1916-1931. He earned a bachelor's degree (1910) and master's degree (1911) at the University of Wisconsin at Madison. He received his M.D. from Johns Hopkins University in 1915 and later served as a professor of physiology and director, 1935-1953 at the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research.
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When Mrs. Markey died on July 24, 1982, the Lucille P. Markey Charitable Trust was incorporated as a Florida nonprofit organization with 501(c)(3) status. The initial meeting of the Board of Trustees occurred in October 1983, and the Trust's Miami office opened on January 1, 1984. The trust completed all activities on June 15, 1997) http://id.loc.gov/authorities/names/n89638097
Anita Whitney Mackie is a former assistant professor of preventive medicine at Washington University School of Medicine who spent the majority of her career working on health services and agricultural issues in Africa. Born in Belfast, Northern Ireland IN 1930, Mackie holds degrees from McGill University (B. Sc. 1952), Cornell University (M.S., 1954), and Michigan State University (PH.D. Communications, 1962). She originally began her professional career as an agricultural economist in Nigeria for Stanford University and served on Nigerian relief in 1967-1968, but the Biafran War forced her return to the United States. At that point in 1970, she became a member of the Washington University School of Medicine faculty. At Washington University, Mackie acted as a liason between the medical center and the division of Health Care Research. She was assistant professor of Health care services in preventative medicine (communication). In the early 1970s, she was called back to Africa and spent the next two decades working with USAID and the Foreign Service in Chad. In her retirement years, Mackie has lived in Zimbabwe, South Africa, and the U.S.
Sources: curriculum vitae, 1970; Washington University School of Medicine catalog, 1970/71-1973/74
M. Kenton King (1924-2009) became the first full-time dean of Washington University School of Medicine in 1965, a position he retained until his retirement in 1989 and thereby making him one of the longest-serving Medical School deans in the United States. His tenure brought much acclaim to the School of Medicine both academically, with the recruitment of new heads in every department, and physically, with the addition of the McDonnell Medical Sciences Building, Clinical Sciences Research Building, Becker Medical Library, and the renovation of the East Building. King's leadership also affected the composition of the student body as his recruitment efforts brought more minority and female students to Washington University.
Born on November 13, 1924, in Oklahoma City, King began his undergraduate studies at the University of Oklahoma. World War II interrupted his academic pursuits when he joined the U.S. Navy in 1943. He participated in the Battle of Okinawa and attained the rank of lieutenant prior to his discharge in 1946. A year later, King earned his bachelor's degree from the University of Oklahoma and decided to attend Vanderbilt University's School of Medicine on the G.I. Bill. He graduated in 1951, ranked seventh in his class. King then completed an internship and a residency at Barnes Hospital in St. Louis, becoming chief resident in 1955. When his mentor, W. Barry Wood, transferred to Johns Hopkins University in 1955, King followed and completed a fellowship in microbiology. He returned to Washington University in 1957 as a member of the preventive medicine faculty and head of the Student Health Service.
King's administrative contributions to Washington University School of Medicine began as associate dean in 1961, until he was promoted to dean of the School of Medicine in 1965. In 1967, he also became the first Danforth Professor of Medicine and Public Health. King met his wife, June Greenfield King, at Barnes Hospital. A 1951 graduate of the Washington University School of Nursing, June was also the head nurse on a Barnes Hospital medical and surgical ward. After his retirement in 1989, King remained active in university affairs, organizing the School of Medicine's 100th anniversary celebration in 1991. King died on October 15, 2009.
- Born 1947
Kenneth M. Ludmerer is a physician-historian who currently serves as the Mabel Dorn Reeder Distinguished Professor in the History of Medicine and professor of medicine at Washington University School of Medicine. He earned his medical degree and a master's degree in the history of medicine from Johns Hopkins University.
Ernest Sachs, MD (1879-1958) was born in New York City to a family gifted in the arts, steeped in academia, and endowed with wealth. Together with Harvey Cushing, he is regarded as one of the founders of American neurosurgery. His father was a classical scholar and a founder of the Teachers College at Columbia University, his uncle was a neurologist noted for the description of Tay-Sachs disease, and his cousin was professor of fine arts at Harvard University. Sachs himself would learn the cello at the age of six.
Sachs attended the newly founded Johns Hopkins Medical School and graduated with high honors in 1904. Following his medical degree, he spent three years as a house officer at Mount Sinai in New York, before pursuing two additional years of study in Vienna, Berlin, and London. Recruited to Washington University after the reorganization of the School of Medicine, Sachs became the pioneering neurosurgeon west of the Mississippi. In 1919, Sachs was named Professor of Neurological Surgery, the first surgeon in the United States with such an appointment.
Known to be forceful, demanding, and a perfectionist, Sachs developed one of the most outstanding neurosurgical centers in the world at Washington University. Dedicated to the care of his patients, he could be gracious, thoughtful, and even gentle. He would also rightfully earn a fearsome, legendary status, among his many students as being intimidating, caustic, and belligerent. For thirty-five years he held his infamous twelve o'clock clinic for the junior medical students in the Barnes Hospital surgical amphitheater know as "The Pit."
In 1949, Sachs abruptly resigned his emeritus professorship at Washington University to accept a position in retirement at Yale University.
Samuel B. Guze was born in New York City in 1923. He completed his undergraduate coursework at the City College of New York, and later attended Washington University School of Medicine, receiving his medical degree in 1945. Dr. Guze began his career at Washington University as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Medicine in 1953. In 1955, he also became an Assistant Professor of Psychiatry. Guze is best remembered as one of the founding fathers of the scientific approach to psychiatry. In the 1950s he propagated the view that psychiatric illness should be diagnosed just as any other physical illness through the use of a scientific model and a biological approach.
Guze's work also spawned great interest in the genetics of psychiatric disorders. He was among the first psychiatrists to use the study of twins as a way to investigate the role of heredity in mental illness. He and his colleagues produced key findings about genetic vulnerability to alcoholism and to other conditions such as schizophrenia and affective disorders. His research brought widespread recognition of the important role epidemiologic studies should play in psychiatric research. His views found general acceptance in 1980, when he helped to compile the American Psychiatric Association's standard DSM-III, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.
In addition to his scientific accomplishments, Guze is also recognized for the leadership abilities he demonstrated while holding several important administrative positions at Washington University. He served as the Assistant to the Dean from 1965 to 1971. He was appointed Vice Chancellor and President of the Washington University Medical Center in 1971, a position he held until 1989. Guze presided over the school during a time of rapid expansion and changes in medical care and research. Additionally, he was head of the Department of Psychiatry from 1975 to 1989, and again from 1993 to 1997. In all, he served on the faculty for almost 50 years. Guze passed away on July 19, 2000.
Eli Robins received his medical degree from Harvard University University Medical School in 1943 and did his residency in psychiatry. In 1949-1951, he learned from Oliver Lowry about brain biochemistry at Washington University School of Medicine as a US Public Health Service fellow. He joined the faculty and administration of Washington University School of Medicine in 1951, serving as: instructor in neuropsychiatry (1951-1953), assistant professor (1953-1956), associate professor (1956-1958), professor of (1958-1966), Wallace Renard Professor of psychiatry (1966-), and head of the psychiatry department (1963-1975).
Robins was affiliated with Barnes Hospital from 1951-1994 and for many years psychiatrist in chief (1963-1975). He was at the forefront of American psychiatric medicine bringing scientific research from the Freudian approach that dominated the 1940s to an empirical scientific approach based on diagnostic criteria. Modern research into biomedical and social factors in psychiatric disorders followed the agreement of clinicians and researchers on diagnostic criteria. Eli Robin's own research interest was in chemical aspects of brain function and psychiatric illness, specifically the causes of suicide and the neurochemistry of psychiatric disease such as manic depressive disorders, depression, schizophrenia, and multiple sclerosis.
Sources: Amer. Men & Women Sci, 13th ed. 1976 ; Bauer, Dale R., "A letter from the publisher," Medical World News, March 29, 1970; Washington University Record, January 19, 1975; "Eli and Lee Robins," Washington University Magazine, Fall 1973.
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International Society of Surgery was founded 1902 in Brussels. Its headquarters are in Brussels.
Alexander C. Sonnenwirth was born in Oradea, Romania into a German-speaking Jewish family. In addition to German, Sonnenwirth learned Romanian, Hungarian, and Hebrew as a child. After completing his secondary education, Sonnenwirth went to Budapest to stay with relatives while he worked as a photographer. However, World War II shattered the world in which he and his family lived. Most of the Jews of Oradea, including Sonnenwirth's parents, were sent to death camps by the German invaders. Sonnenwirth escaped that fate, but was forced to serve in a labor gang for the duration of the war until he was rescued by Allied forces.
Immediately after the war, Sonnenwirth lived in a camp for displaced persons in Marburg, Germany. He was awarded a Hillel Scholarship which enabled him to come to the United States to study bacteriology at the University of Nebraska. After earning a Bachelor's degree in 1950, Sonnenwirth continued his studies at Purdue University where he graduated with a Master's of Science in 1953. While a student, he married Rosaline Soffer, and in 1953, the Sonnenwirths moved to St. Louis when he was appointed Assistant Director of the Division of Bacteriology at Jewish Hospital.
Sonnenwirth became the director of the division in 1955 and began doctoral studies in bacteriology at Washington University. Studying under Dr. Theodore Rosebury of the School of Dentistry, Sonnenwirth received his PhD in 1960. In addition to his duties at Jewish Hospital, Sonnenwirth served several academic appointments including Instructor of Bacteriology in the School of Dentistry (1958-1961) and as Assistant Professor in the School of Medicine for the Departments of Microbiology (1962) and Pathology (1968). In 1970, he was promoted to Associate Professor in the latter two departments and became a full Professor in 1977.
Sonnenwirth's scientific contributions included both 'pure' research and innovation in clinical technology. His chief research specialty was the study of anaerobic gram-negative bacilli. His enormous knowledge in this and related fields was expressed in the publication of over one hundred scientific papers and summarized in his editorship of the sixth, seventh, and eighth editions of Gradwohl's Clinical Laboratory Methods and Diagnosis (1963, 1970, 1980). He and his colleagues of the Microbiology Laboratory at Jewish Hospital were leading evaluators of new equipment and procedures, particularly of automated testing instrumentation.
Sonnenwirth was for many years a key participant in professional associations of microbiologists and their conferences, symposiums, and seminars. This activity included extensive travel within the U.S. and abroad. Sonnenwirth is remembered for his services to the American Society for Microbiology, having been among the organizers of the Clinical Microbiology Section in 1963 and its chairman from 1970 to 1973. Sonnenwirth was chosen by the American Society for Microbiology to receive its highest professional recognition, the Becton-Dickinson Award, in 1984.
Herman Tuholske was born on March 27, 1848 in Meseritz, Prussia. He was educated at the Berlin Gymnasium and immigrated to the United States, settling in St. Louis in 1865. He graduated from the Missouri Medical College in 1869 and then returned to Europe for a time to complete post-graduate courses in Vienna, Berlin, London and Paris. From 1870 to 1875 Tuholske served as physician to the St. Louis City Dispensary; he was also in charge of the Quarantine Hospital during this time. In 1873 he was appointed professor of anatomy at Missouri Medical College. He became professor of surgery in 1882, a post he maintained until 1909 (Missouri Medical College was absorbed by Washington University in 1899).
In 1882, Tuholske co-founded the St. Louis Post-Graduate School of Medicine and its hospital, where he also served as professor of surgery. The school was the first of its kind in the country. From 1890 to 1902, Tuholske established and ran the St. Louis Surgical and Gynecological Hospital, a private institution attached to his home. Tuholske became the first president of the medical staff at Jewish Hospital in 1902 and served in this capacity until 1920; he was head of the hospital's Department of Surgery concurrently.
A specialist in abdominal surgery, Tuholske's accomplishments include being the first to record successful ovariotomies and developing a new method of stomach resection. Tuholske was also a leader in the campaign to make completion of a three-year medical course a prerequisite for obtaining a medical license in Missouri, and he was instrumental in the creation of the Missouri State Board of Health. Additionally, he was a founding member of the International Gynecological Association.
Greenfield Sluder was an ear, nose, and throat surgeon based in St. Louis. He is best known for popularizing the use of subtotal tonsillectomy in 1920. Sluder earned his doctorate from Washington University in 1888 and continued his studies in Europe for several more years. He joined the Washington University staff in 1891 as an instructor of clinical medicine, rising through the ranks to become clinical professor and head of the Department of Laryngology and Rhinology in 1906. By the time of his death, Sluder had written two books and nearly 70 papers.
Dr. Samuel H. Gray (1897-1949) was a pathologist at Jewish Hospital who was the longtime director of its laboratory and research division until his death in 1949. Gray also taught at Washington University School of Medicine as associate professor of pathology. He graduated from the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University (1923) and was a lieutenant commander in the U.S. Navy during WWII.
Source: St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 18 August 1949; Bulletin of the St. Louis Jewish Hospital Medical Staff, October 1949, page 39-41
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