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Bernard Becker Medical Library, Washington University in St. Louis

Butcher, Harvey R.

  • Person
  • 1920-1989

Harvey Raymond Butcher, Jr. was an emeritus professor of surgery at Washington University School of Medicine when he died in 1989 after a lengthy illness. In 1944 he was an intern at Barnes Hospital in surgery after earning his M.D. at Harvard Medical School. From 1952-1987, He was a member of the department of Surgery at Washington University School of medicine. He was professor of surgery from 1964-1987. From 1978-1984, he served as the chief of general surgery and surgeon-in-chief at the medical school and Barnes Hospital until his retirement in 1987.

During his tenure, Butcher was a leading authority in vascular surgery and breast cancer. Butcher was also a past president of the Western Surgical Association, the Missouri chapter of the American College of Surgeons, the St. Louis Surgical Society, and a past vice president of the American Surgical Association.

Source: Dr. Harvey Butcher dies, Barnes Bulletin, Volume 43, No. 6, page 2, June 1989, RG009-S12-ss02-V43-N06-1989-06,

Anschuetz, Robert R.

  • Person
  • 1916-2000

Robert R. Anschuetz was a longtime surgeon in Alton, Illinois. He opened his private surgery practice in 1949, and was the founding chairman of the surgery department and former chief of staff at St. Anthony's Health Center. Anschuetz was also the president of the medical staff and chief of surgery at Alton Memorial Hospital. He was a Washington University alumnus, having received both his undergraduate and medical degrees (M.D. 1940) from the institution. He married Ella Pfeiffenberger in 1942.

Anschuetz, Ella Pfeiffenberger

  • Person
  • 1915-2009

A third generation Altonian, Mrs. Anschuetz grew up on Bluff Street. She was the daughter of Dr. Mather and Hortense Pfeiffenberger, the granddaughter of three-time Alton mayor Lucas Pfeiffenberger, the mother of seven children and the grandmother of six. Her maternal grandfather Rodgers and Uncle Eben Rodgers established the Alton Brick Company. Before her marriage in 1942 to surgeon Robert R. Anschuetz of the Washington University class of 1942, Ella attended schools as near as the former Irving and Roosevelt schools in Alton and as far away as the University of Heidelberg in Germany. While in Germany, she attended the 1936 Berlin Olympics and saw Adolph Hitler. She graduated from Monticello Seminary, a high school, and in 1934, she graduated as valedictorian of Monticello College, a junior college. Later she earned an undergraduate degree from Wellesley College, class of 1936, and a master's degree from Washington University.

Many Altonians remember Mrs. Anschuetz as a talented harpist. One of the high points of Mrs. Anschuetz's life was her harp study at Michigan's Interlochen Music Camp. She was the oldest of seven children who played together as a family orchestra and even had a composition adapted for them. In addition to playing with the Alton Civic Orchestra, as an active member of First Presbyterian Church of Alton she played the harp at Christmas Eve services for 50 years. "When she served as an elder at First Presbyterian Church," said her daughter Mary Vogt, "Dad fondly referred to Mom as "Elder Eller."

After his Army service in WWII, Ella brought her husband to Bluff Street to raise their six children. In addition to her extraordinary dedication to her family, she was particularly devoted to excellence in classical music and education, as well as serving the Alton community in several leadership positions. Mrs. Anschuetz's involvement in Alton community service spanned more than half a century. She led the Alton Community Service League as well as numerous Cub Scout, Brownie and Girl Scout troops. She also served on the Jenny D. Hayner Library Foundation Board for 40 years and on the United Way, Monticello Foundation and Alton Museum of History and Art Boards.

Ella Pfeiffenberger Anschuetz, 93, died Saturday, June 27, 2009 in Denver, Colorado. A longtime Alton resident and widow of former Alton surgeon Dr. Robert R. Anschuetz, she moved to Denver from Alton in 2002 to be near family.

Pfeiffenberger, Mather

  • Person
  • 1879-1963

James Mather Pfeiffenberger earned his M.D. from the Washington University School of Medicine in 1902. He practiced as a surgeon in Alton, Illinois and was active in the Washington University Alumni Association.

Bosher, Lewis H., Jr.

  • Person
  • 1914-2012

Lewis H. Bosher, Jr. was a physician who specialized in thoracic surgery. As a Virginia native, Bosher stayed in state to earn his bachelor's degree from University of Virginia in 1936 and then received his medical degree from Harvard Medical School in 1940. Bosher started his career in medicine as an assistant resident at Bellevue Hospital, but WWII interrupted his residency. During the war, he was a staff member of the Army Medical Corps, the First General Hospital, the Fourth Auxiliary Surgical Group, and McGuire General Hospital. Bosher left the Army in 1946 with the rank of Major.

Bosher resumed his surgical residency at Medical College of Virginia (MCV) for a year, and completed postdoctoral training in general surgery at the Lahey Clinic in Massachusetts and in thoracic surgery at Barnes Hospital. Upon the completion of his studies, Bosher returned to MCV in 1950 as an assistant professor in the Department of Surgery. He became a full professor in 1974 and retired from academic medicine to start a private practice in 1979. Known for his leadership, Bosher helped establish cardiac surgery programs at Chippenham and Henrico Doctors' Hospitals, and served in various roles for numerous medical organizations.

Feigin, Ralph D.

  • Person
  • 1938-2008

Ralph Feigin (1938-2008) was a pediatrician best known for his influential book, Textbook of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, first published in 1981. He graduated from Columbia University and Boston University School of Medicine, and completed his residency at Massachusetts General Hospital in 1965. Feigin spent the next two years conducting research for the U.S. Army and as the chief resident of the children’s service of Mass General before becoming a professor of pediatrics at Washington University in 1968. Feigin taught at Washington University until 1977, when he took a faculty appointment at Baylor College of Medicine as the chair of the department of pediatrics. At Baylor, Feigin transformed the school into an elite hospital for pediatric studies, served as the department chair from 1977 to 2008, and was the medical school’s president and CEO from 1996 to 2003. Also, Feigin was the Physician-in-Chief at Texas Children’s Hospital from 1977 to 2008. In addition to his famed publication, Feigin published Oski’s Pediatrics: Principles and Practice, and was the associate editor for the official journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics.

Cori, Carl F.

  • Person
  • 1896-1984

Carl Ferdinand Cori was born in 1896 in Prague (then located in the Austro-Hungarian Empire), the son of a noted Austrian biologist. Cori began medical study in his native city, but this was interrupted by military service in World War I, during which he served as a medic on the Italian front. While a student again after the war, he became engaged to a classmate, Gerty Theresa Radnitz. The two were married in Vienna in 1920 shortly after receiving their medical degrees. Both chose research careers, but it proved very difficult to find suitable positions in war-impoverished Austria. In 1922, the Coris emigrated to the United States, where Carl took a position in Buffalo, at the State Institute for the Study of Malignant Disease (now Roswell Park Memorial Institute).

In 1931, Cori was appointed professor and chairman of the Department of Pharmacology at the Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. He would later switch departments and become professor and chair of the department of Biochemistry in 1946. Working with his wife Gerty, the Coris most notable contribution to science was their series of discoveries that elucidated the pathway of glycogen breakdown in animal cells and the enzymic basis of its regulation, now known as the Cori Cycle.

Greider, Marie H.

  • Person
  • 1922-2015

Marie Helen Greider, one of the pioneering researchers of DNA died on August 10, 2015. She defended her doctoral dissertation on the effect of deoxyribonuclease on deoxyribonucleic acid less than seven years after Watson and Crick's initial paper was published in the journal Nature to which she remained a subscriber until her death. Marie Helen Greider was born 15 January 1922 in Newark, Ohio, the youngest of five children in the family of Clara Bertha (Dair) and Earl F. Greider. She died in Newark, Ohio in 2015. She graduated from Ohio State University with three degrees in Zoology: B.Sc. 1949; in Biology; M.S., 1955 in Cytology; Ph.D., 1960 in Cytology. She was 93.

Marie focused her professional career on searches for cures for diseases of the kidney, pancreas, joints and digestive system such as hepatitis, Hodgkin's, arthritis, diabetes and dermatitis. Academic, publishing and research credits are too numerous to cite.

Her career was centered on research and teaching at The Ohio State University and Washington University School of Medicine—from which she retired as Professor of Pathology and Vice-Chairman of the Pathology Department. In addition, Marie lectured widely at professional conferences around the world. Onto these trips she always tacked an outdoor adventure bringing back slides and later movies of wild animals and exotic - and usually remote - scenery.

During her years of research, she made significant discoveries that contributed to treatments for many of these diseases. She was one of the first to use an electron microscope to study cell structure and in 1966 wrote the definitive book on its use.

Marie Greider was Assistant Professor of Pathology in the Department of Pathology at Washington University by 1968. By the academic year 1984-85, she was Professor of Pathology. Both she and Phyllis M. Hartroft were experimental pathologists at Washington University and shared a household and many research projects particularly those at Tyson Research Center on the effect of pollution on animals.

Sources: Dr. Marie Helen Greider, Newark Advocate, Published in the Advocate on Aug. 14 to Aug. 16, 2015.

Barbee, Andrew B.

  • Person
  • 1819-1896

Andrew B. "A.B." Barbee was a physician and surgeon who practiced in St. Louis. He graduated from Kemper Medical College in 1843 and authored a history of Missouri Medical college from 1840 to 1861, published in 1914.

Smith, Margaret G.

  • Person
  • 1896-1970

Margaret G. Smith was born on February 10, 1896 in Carnegie, Pennsylvania. In 1918 she received an AB degree from Mount Holyoke College, and in 1922, she received an MD from Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. Dr. Smith joined the Hopkins faculty as an Assistant Pathologist following graduation and remained there until she accepted a position in at Washington University in 1929. Dr. Smith began her career at Washington University as an Assistant Professor in the Pathology Department. She was promoted to Associate Professor in 1943, and in 1957 Dr. Smith was among the first women to be named full professor at the university.

Prominent in the field of pediatric pathology, she is best known for her research into the St. Louis encephalitis virus and the salivary gland virus. She was the first to propagate the herpes simplex virus in a mouse, and was the first to discover the cytomegetic inclusion disease virus. Dr. Smith was the author of more than seventy scientific publications. In 1967, she and John M. Kissane, also Professor of Pathology, published the classic textbook, Pathology of Infancy and Childhood.

In 1959, the Globe Democrat named Dr. Smith a St. Louis Woman of Achievement, a significant community recognition for that period. In 1964, Washington University presented her a faculty citation at the Founders' Day ceremonies. In that same year, she was also honored at the dedication of the Children's Research Center in Toronto, Canada. Dr. Smith remained active in the Pathology Department as Professor Emeritus until her death in 1970.

Erlanger, Joseph

  • Person
  • 1874-1965

Joseph Erlanger (1874-1965) was born in San Francisco, studied at the University of California (B.S., 1895) and received his medical education at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore (M.D., 1899). He was an intern at the Johns Hopkins University Hospital under William Osler, 1899-1900. From 1900 to 1906, Erlanger was an assistant in physiology at Johns Hopkins under William H. Howell. He became professor of physiology at the University of Wisconsin Medical School in 1906. In 1910, he accepted an appointment as professor and head of physiology at Washington University in St. Louis. Erlanger retained this position until retirement in 1946, continuing in research at the university for several years afterward. In 1944, he and Herbert S. Gasser were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of nerve fibres."

Erlanger's chief contributions to physiology can be divided into two distinct phases. Until 1921, he concentrated on problems relating to the cardiovascular system, developing an improved sphygmomanometer, and making important discoveries about the relation of blood pressure and the conduction of electrical impulses in the heart. The second phase of his research career began in collaboration with Gasser, a former student. The two adapted a cathode-ray oscillograph for the purpose of amplifying and recording electrical conduction, or action potentials, of the nervous system. Using this instrument, they analyzed and compared action potentials of different portions of the nervous system, determining that the speed of conduction is proportional to the diameter of the nerve fiber. Erlanger's later research built upon this key electrophysiological discovery, with studies of excitation and polarization of nerve fibers, among other investigations. Throughout his tenure at Washington University, Erlanger played an important role in the governance of the medical school through its Executive Faculty council. He also made important contributions to the American Physiological Society and other scientific organizations.

Charles, Benjamin H.

  • Person
  • 1908-1994

Benjamin H. Charles, M.D., was a Washington University School of Medicine alumnus who served as a major for the 21st General Hospital during World War II. Charles was the chief officer of the POW section of the 21st General Hospital.

Wulff, George J. L., Jr.

  • Person
  • 1909-1998

George J. L. Wulff, Jr. earned both his bachelor's and medical degrees (M. D. 1933) from Washington University and served as a Lt. colonel and colonel in the Army Medical Corps during World War II. After he trained with the 21st General Hospital. he became commander of the 12th Field Hospital in September 1942. After the war Wulff worked in private practice for 40 years. He was on the staff of Deaconess Hospital, Barnes Hospital, and St. Luke's Hospital, where he was chief of the obstetrics-gynecology department. He was also a professor at Washington University School of Medicine.

Obituaries: George J.L. Wulff Jr., emeritus professor of obstetrics and gynecology, Washington University Record, 22 January 1998, page & 12th Field Hospital, Unit History, WW2 Us Medical Research Centre,

Kountz, Willie Mae

  • Person
  • 1902-2001

Willie Mae Weissinger, a teacher and a nurse, was born on September 12, 1902 in Hernando, Mississippi to Cora Scott and Alexander T. Weissinger. She graduated from Millsap College in Jacksonville, MS with a degree in education and earned an RN from Washington University School of Nursing. She taught in Hernando, Mississippi.

In 1928 WillIam B. Kountz married Willie Mae Weissinger of St. Louis. They had two sons, William and Robert. In their later married life, Mrs. Kountz was very active in raising financial support for her husband's specialty through work with women's clubs. Following WBK's death, Mrs. Kountz corresponded with several of his colleagues, the basis of this series. Most numerous are letters from Washington University Vice Chancellors for Medical Affairs, William H. Danforth, and his successor Samuel B. Guze, and the first Kountz Professor, Hugh B. Chaplin.
Source: FC045-S05, Correspondence of Willie Mae Kountz, 1967-1979. William B. Kountz Papers

Ogura, Joseph H.

  • Person
  • 1915-1983

Joseph Hirosuke Ogura was born in San Francisco in 1915. He studied at the University of California, receiving his BA (1937) and MD (1941). From 1940-1948, he did internships and residencies at hospitals in California and Ohio as well as the WU School of Medicine and McMillan, Barnes, and St. Louis City Hospitals. Ogura's first teaching post at the School of Medicine in 1948 was instructor of Otolaryngology. He was promoted to assistant professor in 1951 and associate professor in 1953. He became full professor in 1960 and Lindburg Professor in 1966. He served as head of the department of Otolaryngology and otolaryngologist-in-chief at Barnes and St. Louis Children's Hospital for sixteen years, 1966-1982. He remained as staff otolaryngologist at Barnes and Childrens until his death in 1983 at the age of 67. The School of Medicine created the Ogura Lectureship in honor of him in 1977.

A superb academic physician and surgeon, Ogura developed refinements in the voice sparing operation for cancer of the larynx. Prior to his innovative laryngeal surgery, patients underwent total removal of the larynx. With his approach, he preserved larygeal function for speech and swallowing.

Ogura was an indefatigable contributor to medical literature and teaching programs of head and neck surgery. He was the author of more than 300 articles and 20 books. Head and neck cancer, ablative surgery,and reconstructive surgery were his specialties. His research interests included nasopulmonary mechanics, laryngeal physiology, and the study and care of progressive malignant exophthalmus and he explored the possibility of transplantation of the larynx.

Ogura was a member of 30 professional societies including the elite international society, Collegium Oto-Rhino-Larynogological Amicitiate Sacurum whose U.S. membership was limited to 20 active otolarynogologists. He was one of three physicians in the history of the American Larynogological Association to receive all three of its awards: the Casselberry Award, the James Newcombe Award and the DeRoalds Gold medial. He was president of the American Society for Head and Neck Surgery, the American Larynogological Association, and the Society of Academic Chairman of Otolaryngology. He was selected in 1980 to the Royal Society of Medicine, and appointed to the National Cancer Advisory Board by President Nixon in 1972.

*From WU Record, 04-21-1983 and Arch Otolaryngology 106:662-663, Nov. 1980.

Department of Otolaryngology, Washington University School of Medicine

  • Corporate body
  • 1896-

The Department of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery at Washington University in St. Louis has a rich, 130-year history of leadership in our field that is built on the foundations of academic medicine: patient care, research, training and service. Our past leaders include luminaries in the field of otolaryngology, such as John Blasdel Shapleigh, MD; Greenfield Sluder, MD; Lee Wallace Dean, MD; Theodore Walsh, MD; Joseph Ogura, MD; John Fredrickson, MD; Richard A. Chole, MD, PhD; and, presently, Craig A. Buchman, MD, FACS. Even from our earliest days, prior to the inception of the McMillan Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat Hospital (circa 1943), excellence has been an integral part of the department's fabric. A look at former faculty and program graduates reveals many of the true innovators in our field. While we remain humbled by our beginnings and past achievements, we choose not to rest on our laurels. Rather, we aspire to further our commitment to improving patients' lives by leading our field and its clinical application.
-- 2019-2020 Bulletin Overview:

Olmsted, William H.

  • Person
  • 1887-1978

William H. Olmsted (1887-1978) received his M.D. degree from Johns Hopkins University in 1913. He was an intern, 1913-1914 and resident and assistant resident, 1914-1917, at Barnes Hospital and afterwards served with Base Hospital 21, the medical unit sent by the hospital and WUSM to support American troops in World War 1. After the war, Olmsted re-joined the clinical faculty of the WUSM Department of Medicine, climbing the ladder from assistant in internal medicine to associate professor from 1915-1952.Olmsted became emeritus in 1952 .

In Barnes Hospital's first year of operation in 1914, Olmsted was the second medical resident to join the staff, along with acting as a clinical research pathologist, 1914. He was the first head of the hospital's chemical laboratory in 1920, and was the founding president of the Barnes Hospital Society in 1925. Olmsted became physician emeritus in 1952 .

From 1920 to 1963, Dr. Olmsted practiced as a private physician. He was certified in the practice of internal medicine in 1936, specializing in diabetes. In 1920, insulin was discovered to be effective in the treatment of diabetes, and Barnes Hospital was one of the first selected in the country to use the hormone to treat patients. Since Olmsted was the resident expert in diabetes, he became the first doctor to use insulin in St. Louis in the year 1922. Years later, in 1949, he founded the St. Louis Diabetes Association.

Cady, Lee D.

  • 06286555
  • Person
  • 1896-1987

Lee D. Cady was a physician who served on the Washington University and Baylor University Schools of Medicine staff, and served overseas for the U.S. in both WWI and WWII. Cady graduated from University of Missouri (A.B. 1918) and Washington University School of Medicine (A.M. 1921; M.D. 1922), and was a faculty member at Washington University (Departments of Medicine and Clinical Medicine) from 1925 to 1942. He did his internship and residency at Washington University, 1922-1925. During WWII, he was the commander of the 21st General Hospital, the hospital unit for Washington University in Rouen, France. Under his leadership, the base hospital cared for over 65,000 patients in the European theater of the war. For his medical service and assistance in the liberation of France, Cady received the French Croix de Guerre in 1945. The next year, he was appointed the director of medical services for the Veterans Administration in Dallas, presiding over the regional branches in Texas, Louisiana, and Mississippi. Cady served in that position for thirteen years and later was appointed as the director of the Veterans Hospital in Houston. He passed away in 1987 and was buried with full military honors in Arlington National Cemetery.

Baumgarten, Louise Beckmann

  • Family
  • born 1815

Louise Beckmann Baumgarten was born Amalie Louisa Bechman and lived in Nordheim Germany where she met Doctor Frederick Ernst Baumgarten (1810-1869) also of Nordheim. They had three children, Gustav (1837-1910) , Joanna (1840)and Theodora (1842-) Her youngest daughter, Theodora was born in Clausthal in 1842 according to the marriage record for her and her husband, Rev ? Bose in 1873. Louise and her children joined her husband in St. Louis in January 1850.

Baumgarten, Frederick Ernst

  • Person
  • 1810-1869

Born in Nordheim, Germany, Friedrich Ernst Baumgarten was a German-American physician who emigrated to the United States in the 1840s, settling in St. Louis in 1850. He received his medical degree from the University of Gottingen in 1831, and became a mining surgeon in in the town of Clausthal in the Harz Mountains. After earning another degree from the University of Jena in 1844, Friedrich became interested in the prospect of a better life in the United States.

He left his family for Galveston, Texas and attempted to establish a medical practice there, but yellow fever epidemics pushed him to settle further north. In 1850, Friedrich (now known as Frederick) came to St. Louis and found it to his liking due to the growing German immigrant community, so he sent for his wife and children to move in with him. The family settled in 1851, and Frederick became an American citizen in 1852. However, his wife could not adjust to life in America so she soon moved back to Germany with their daughters while their son, Gustav, remained behind with his father.

During his career in St. Louis, Frederick emphasized his medical interest in obstetrics, but carried on a successful practice with patients with a variety of backgrounds and medical afflictions. He was a founding member of the German Medical Society of St. Louis and participated in the St. Louis Medical Society, the St. Louis Academy of Science, and the Masonic Order.

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