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St. Louis Medical College was chartered in 1841 as the medical department of St. Louis University. The university appointed the first faculty, but allowed them to be governed by an autonomous, nonsectarian Board of Trustees. Instruction began in October 1842 in a small building that was owned by the first dean, James Vance Prather, located on Washington Avenue near Tenth Street and adjacent to the university buildings. In 1849 the college moved to a neoclassical style building at Clark Avenue and Seventh Street built by the financier John O'Fallon. Despite the nonsectarian board, public pressure -- particularly from the extreme nativist movement, the so-called "Know Nothing" party -- demanded that the department sever ties with the Roman Catholic university. In 1855, the state of Missouri granted the college a charter as an independent institution.

In the 1850s and 1860s St. Louis Medical College was so dominated by one man, the second dean, Charles Alexander Pope that it was commonly referred to as "Pope's College." There was some literal truth to the name, because Pope owned the Seventh Street building outright. On Pope's death in 1870, his colleagues were forced as a group to raise funds to buy the facility. That group organized under the name of the Medical Fund Society of St. Louis.

In the 1870s the curriculum of the college was reformed and expanded. By 1880, all students were required to matriculate for three years before receiving a diploma. In 1891, St. Louis Medical College became affiliated with Washington University and was designated its medical department. For eight more years, however, the old name was maintained, and the medical school was known jointly as the Washington University Medical Department and Saint Louis Medical College. This dual name was dropped only when the Missouri Medical College affiliated with the university in 1899.

In 1892 the Medical Fund Society and Washington University sponsored the construction of a new facility at 1804 Locust Street. The building was praised for being "commodious and well planned." But less than twenty years later, the same building was devastatingly criticized by Abraham Flexner in his famous report to the Carnegie Commission. With the reorganization of Washington University School of Medicine in 1910, most of the remaining traditions of St. Louis Medical College were abandoned in the interests of progressive medical education.

Gradwohl, Rutherford B. H.

  • Person
  • 1877-1959

Rutherford B. H. Gradwohl graduated from Washington University School of Medicine in 1898. A bacteriologist and pathologist, he became a pioneer in the field of forensic pathology. He established the St. Louis Metropolitan Police Department’s first crime lab and founded the American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

Harrison, Lee B.

  • Person
  • 1902-1990

Lee Bullen Harrison was born in Richmond, Utah in 1902. He attended the University of Utah and graduated with an A.B. degree in 1925. He entered Washington University School of Medicine directly into the clinical year of study and graduated with an M.D. in 1927. He began an internship in internal medicine at Barnes Hospital on January 1, 1928. He became an Assistant in Clinical Medicine at Washington University School of Medicine in December 1932. He also served as Instructor in Emergency Medicine. He was Chief of Staff at the Missouri Pacific Hospital until his retirement in 1974. He was in private practice in St. Louis for more than 50 years at his office at 607 North Grand Boulevard. He was on the staffs of Washington University and Barnes Hospital. He died on July 12, 1990.

Barnes Hospital School of Nursing

  • Corporate body
  • 1955-

Barnes Hospital School of Nursing was founded in 1955. In 2005, Barnes College merged with Jewish Hospital School of Nursing to become Barnes-Jewish College of Nursing and Allied Health. The school changed its name to the Goldfarb School of Nursing at Barnes-Jewish College after a generous gift from Alvin Goldfarb in 2007. In 2011, the school opened a second location on the Missouri Baptist Medical Center campus.

O'Connor, Candace

  • Person
  • Born 1950

Candace O'Connor is an award-winning, St. Louis-based, freelance writer and editor. She specializes in historical and medical writing, and is the author of 13 books on Midwest history. For more than three decades, her stories have appeared in local and national publications.

Thomas, Edgar Randolph

  • Person
  • 1931-1996

Edgar Randolph Thomas was born in New York City in 1931 and spent several years of his childhood in Kingston, Jamaica. He attended New York University as an undergraduate student, and he became the first African American admitted to the Washington University School of Medicine in the Fall 1951 semester. He did not graduate with an MD, but instead transferred to Washington University’s undergraduate campus where he earned a BA in biology and MA in zoology. Thomas later earned a PhD in physiology from the University of Missouri. He held various academic appointments in his career at the Hampton Institute, University of Missouri, State University of New York, and Millersville University.

Cox, Jerome R., Jr.

  • Person
  • Born 1925

Jerome Cox received both his undergraduate and graduate degrees in electrical engineering from MIT. He joined the faculty of Washington University and Central Institute for the Deaf in 1955 after serving as a consultant in acoustics for Bolt Beranek and Newman, Inc. and Liberty Mutual Insurance Company. Cox has served as assistant professor of Electrical Engineering, 1955-1958; associate professor of Electrical Engineering, 1958-1961; professor of Electrical Engineering, 1961-1999; director, Biomedical Computer Laboratory, 1964-1975; professor of Biomedical Engineering in Physiology and Biophysics, 1966-1999; professor of Computer Science, 1975-1998; chairman, Department of Computer Science, 1975-1991; professor of Biomedicine, Institute for Biomedical Computing, 1983-1998; professor of Radiology, 1986-1998; director of Applied Research Laboratory, Dept. of Computer Science, 1991-1995; senior professor of Computer Science.

Warren, James C.

  • Person
  • 1930-2018

James C. Warren earned his medical degree from the University of Kansas in 1954. He served as the Chairman of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Washington University School of Medicine from 1971-1989.

Watson, Thomas S.

  • Person
  • 1858-1936

Thomas S. Watson received his M.D. from Missouri Medical College in 1882. Following his graduation he opened a medical practice in Bevier, Missouri, which he operated for more than 40 years. He also served as the local surgeon for the Hannibal and St. Joseph railroad and operated a drug store for many years.

Gowan, Marge

  • Person
  • 1909-1998

Jessie Marguerite (Marge) Laymon was born on October 7, 1909 in Wheeler, Illinois. She attended the Jewish Hospital of St. Louis School of Nursing, receiving her RN degree in 1932. She worked as a nurse a Jewish Hospital in the 1930s. She married Garret Gowan, a 1934 graduate of the Washington University School of Dental Medicine, in 1936. The Gowans moved to Boonville, Missouri in the 1930s, and to Laramie, Wyoming in 1949. Marge Gowan died in 1998.

McClendon, Edgar F.

  • Person
  • 1866-1937

Dr. Edgar F. McClendon was born in Trinity County, Texas in 1866. He graduated from the St. Louis College of Physicians and Surgeons in 1890. He served in the US Army during the Spanish-American War where he served in both Cuba and Puerto Rico. He practiced in Plainview, Texas from 1909 until his death on June 25, 1937.

Beaumont, William

  • Person
  • 1785-1853

William Beaumont was born on November 21, 1785 in Lebanon, Connecticut. In 1810, he apprenticed himself to Dr. Benjamin Chandler of St. Albans, Vermont. After serving two years as an apprentice, Beaumont was licensed by the Vermont Medical Society to practice medicine. When the War of 1812 broke out between England and the United States, Beaumont joined the army as a surgeon's mate where he served much of his time treating soldiers at York (now Toronto, Canada) and Plattsburgh, New York. He resigned his commission from the army in 1815 and opened a private medical practice in Plattsburgh.

Beaumont rejoined the army in 1820, where he was granted the rank of post surgeon. Before leaving for his new post at Michilimackinac (Mackinac Island) in Michigan, he married Deborah Platt Green. While stationed at Fort Mackinac, he treated a French Canadian named Alexis St. Martin who had been accidentally shot in his left side. Beaumont saved the patient's life, but St. Martin's wound healed with a permanent opening in his abdomen through which the interior of his stomach was exposed. This accident, along with St. Martin's cooperation during the following two decades, afforded Beaumont the opportunity to conduct experiments on the functions of the human stomach. Beaumont eventually published the results of these investigations in Experiments and Observations on the Gastric Juice and the Physiology of Digestion, a landmark of American medical research.

Following his service in Michigan, Beaumont continued serving in the army where he was transferred to Fort Niagara (New York) in 1825, to Fort Crawford (Wisconsin) in 1829, and finally to Jefferson Barracks (Saint Louis, Missouri) in 1834. He was asked to transfer to Florida in 1839, but rather than be transferred again, Beaumont finally resigned from the army that year at the age of fifty-two. Upon his resignation, he remained in Saint Louis where he maintained a private practice until his death on April 25, 1853.

Siteman Cancer Center

  • Corporate body
  • 1999-

The Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center is an international leader in cancer treatment, research, prevention, education and community outreach. In 1999, Alvin and Ruth Siteman's gift of $35 million established the Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center at Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine.

Department of Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine

  • Corporate body
  • 1891-

The Washington University School of Medicine has had a department of surgery since it was established in 1891. In 1919, the Department of Surgery appointed its first full-time chairman, Evarts Graham, MD, as the William K. Bixby Professor and chairman of the department. Graham, who was surgeon-in-chief at Barnes Hospital from 1919 to 1951, stressed the importance of the basic sciences to the training of surgeons and believed that the study of general surgery should constitute a large share of the time spent in preparing for a career in a surgical specialty.

Graham's legacy of integrating basic science research and clinical care to create the surgical scientist was continued by later chairmen Carl Moyer (1951-1965) and Walter Ballinger (1967-1978). In 1981, Samuel Wells Jr., MD, became the Bixby Professor and chairman of the department. In his 17 years as chairman, he recruited a world-class faculty, emphasized basic and translational research, and placed great emphasis on educating academic leaders in surgery. This tradition of excellence continued with the current head of surgery, Timothy J. Eberlein, MD, Bixby Professor and chair of the Department of Surgery, the Spencer T. and Ann W. Olin Distinguished Professor and director of the Siteman Cancer Center and surgeon-in-chief at Barnes-Jewish Hospital.

Rikagaku Kenkyujo (Japan)

  • Corporate body
  • 1917-

RIKEN is a large scientific research institute in Japan. Founded in 1917, it now has about 3,000 scientists on seven campuses across Japan, including the main site at Wako, Saitama Prefecture, just outside Tokyo. Riken is a Designated National Research and Development Institute, and was formerly an Independent Administrative Institution. 'Riken' is a contraction of the formal name Rikagaku Kenkyujo, and its full name in Japanese is Kokuritsu Kenkyu Kaihatsu Hojin Rikagaku Kenkyusho and in English is the National Institute of Physical and Chemical Research.

Brown, James T.

  • Person
  • 1923-2005

James T. Brown graduated from Washington University School of Medicine in 1948. He participated in the Navy V-12 program during World War II, eventually serving as a naval corpsman at a naval hospital in Maryland. He later served in a M.A.S.H. unit during the Korean War. After the war he opened up a surgical practice in Springfield, Missouri. Brown served as a member and former president of the Missouri Board of Healing Arts, and is a past speaker of the House of Delegates of the Missouri State Medical Society.

Brown wrote two books of medical humor entitled Hippocrates’ Oaf and Second Opinions of Hippocrates’ Oaf, which were compilations of his column, “Random Regurgitations,” in the Green County Medical Society Bulletin.

As his bio for Hippocrates’ Oaf states, he was “not just a surgeon, author, and raconteur”; he was also “the founder, superstar, director, producer, lyricist, and chief prop man for the famous Singing Doctors,” a group of Springfield physicians who performed variety shows with medical parodies of popular songs for over thirty years. The group, founded in 1958 as the “Greene County Boys,” used the proceeds from their appearances and the sale of seven records to provide financial assistance to medical students. The Singing Doctors raised hundreds of thousands of dollars and provided assistance to over 200 medical students. The Singing Doctors of Springfield, Missouri Medical Scholarship Fund is now administered by the University of Missouri-Columbia.

Bunge, Richard P.

  • Person
  • 1932-1996

Richard P. Bunge was a neurobiologist who served as a professor from 1970 to 1989 at Washington University School of Medicine. He conducted his research with his wife of 40 years, Mary Bartlett Bunge.

English, John N.

  • Person
  • 1866-1948

John N. English was an 1893 graduate of Missouri Medical College. He later operated a medical practice in Gillespie, IL.

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