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David Goldring Oral History

  • OH101
  • Collection
  • July 20, 1990

An interview of the Washington University Medical Center Desegregation History Project, conducted by Edwin W. McCleskey and associates, 1990. Approximate Length: 19 minutes.

David Goldrings relates stories he heard and his own experience with the admission of black children to St. Louis Children’s Hospital.

He begins with stories he heard about the attitude of chiefs of pediatrics, hospital administrators, and hospital board toward the admission of black children to children’s Hospital. John Howland was the first chief of pediatrics at the Hospital and he left to go to Johns Hopkins Hospital after 6 months because the Hospital board was opposed to the admission of black children to the hospital. This situation changed when St. Louis Children's Hospital opened the Butler Ward, a black only ward in 1923.

David Goldring’s own experience began with his internship and residency in 1941-1944. One night, a black child needed an incubator and there was none in the Butler ward. So David Goldring admitted him to the infant ward. Estelle Claiborne told David Goldring that this was the sort of thing that got interns fired and reported it to Alexis Hartmann Sr., his chief of pediatrics by a phone call. She was quite angry that Hartmann let the admission stand, but integration did not happen frequently in the war years.

Integration of the staff of St. Louis Children's Hospital began with the Nash family. Helen Nash joined the medical staff in 1949 and Homer Nash in 1955. For years before, Park J. White was committed to the training of African American interns and residents as an attending physician for 25 years at Homer G. Phillips. David Goldring and Neil Middlecamp were aso attendings in pediatrics at Homer G. Phillips Hospital for about 10 years.

Goldring, David

Samuel B. Guze Oral History (OH102)

  • OH102
  • Collection

An interview of the Washington University Medical Center Desegregation History Project, conducted by Edwin W. McCleskey and associates, 1990. Approximate Length: 49 minutes. Interviewers, Bill Geideman and James Carter.

Guze discusses his experience with segregation and desegregation of Barnes Hospital, Renard Hospital, its psychiatric service and unit. He guessed the psychiatric service desegregated the Barnes Hospital psychiatric unit in October 1953.

He and the interviewers had a clearer timeline for desegregation of admission of medical students to the Washington University School of Medicine. He said the executive faculty gave the admissions committee discretion in flexible criteria for admission for those with disadvantaged educational background. Roy Vagelos of Biochemistry was a key player on the Executive Faculty along with John Herweg, who headed the admissions committee starting in the early 1960s. Guze recalled that the first African American medical student (1953?) had difficulty and the second had no difficulty, but the executive faculty wanted more African Americans admitted and numbers did not start to go up significantly until about 1968. This was due to the hiring of Bob Lee, Dean of Minority Affairs, whose sole responsibility at first was minority students.

Guze discusses the parallel but related desegregation of the St. Louis City Hospital and health care systems. He notes that the segregated city healthcare system included two large general hospitals, Homer G. Phillips (St. Louis City Hospital no. 2) built in 1937 on the north side for African-Americans and older St. Louis City Hospital (no. 1 or Max Starkloff) for whites on the south side. He said there was one psychiatric unit at the Malcolm Bliss Center for whites and a separate psychiatric unit for blacks run by black psychiatrists at Homer G. Phillips Hospital. And he recalled that there was a long-standing formal teaching arrangement with 'Max Starkloff or St. Louis City Hospital no. 1 in several services on the south side including psychiatry, medicine, surgery, infectious disease unit, laboratory and isolation unit. But he noted the teaching arrangement with Homer G. Phillips Hospital was less complete and depended on personal relationships in each Service. For example the teaching arrangement with the Surgery Service at Homer G. Phillips was more complete because of the efforts of Robert Elman of the Surgery Department at Washington University School of Medicine to have regular teaching rounds at Homer G. Phillips. Guze notes that desegregation of both facilities led the city to evaluate whether the city needed two large general hospital complexes. A group of black physicians approached Guze in the 1970s about an affiliation, but Guze insisted on conditions that Homer G. Phillips was not prepared to meet then including the right to appoint medical staff.

Guze, Samuel B.

H. Rommel Hildreth Oral History

  • OH030
  • Collection
  • 4/8/1981

Hildreth discusses the dispute between the Washington University School of Medicine and Barnes Hospital in the early 1960s, and the roles of Edgar M. Queeny (chairman of the Trustees of Barnes Hospital), Edward W. Dempsey (dean of the medical school), consultants Joseph Hinsey and John H. Knowles, and Washington University chancellor George Pake. Hildreth also talks about some of the faculty of the medical school while he was a student in the mid-1920s, such as Evarts A. Graham and Joseph Erlanger.  Interviewed by Estelle Brodman on April 8, 1981. OH030. Approximate Length 53 minutes.

Hildreth, H. Rommel

Richard W. Hudgens Oral History

  • OH049
  • Collection
  • 4/28/1981

Hudgens relates some of his experiences as a student at WUSM in the 1950s and some of his influential professors, such as Edward Dempsey, Carl Moore, George Saslow, and Sam Guze. Hudgens also discusses the development of his interest in psychiatry, his medical residencies in Virginia and North Carolina, his experiences as a staff psychiatrist at the U.S. Air Force Hospital at Lackland AFB in Texas, and his experiences on the faculty and in the administration of the Washington University School of Medicine. Interviewed by Paul G. Anderson on April 28, 1981. OH049. Approximate Length 59 minutes.

Hudgens, Richard W.

Andrew B. Jones Oral History

  • OH046
  • Collection
  • October 10, 1980

In his oral history interview, Jones discusses some of his experiences as a medical officer during World War I. He also recalls some of the changes he witnessed over the years in the field of neurology and at the Washington University School of Medicine. Jones recalls some of his colleagues, such as Vilray P. Blair, George Dock, Ernest Sachs, and Sidney Schwab.

Interviewed by Paul Anderson in 1980. Approximate Length: 53 minutes. Grace Jones (Mrs. Andrew B. Jones) was also present and spoke during the interview.

Jones, Andrew B.

Michael M. Karl Oral History

  • OH106
  • Collection
  • July 24, 1990

An interview of the Washington University Medical Center Desegregation History Project, conducted by Edwin W. McCleskey and associates, 1990. Approximate Length: 11 minutes.

The interview asked about the desegregation of Barnes Hospital and the elimination of the 0400 ward.

Karl, Michael M.

William M. Landau Oral History (OH090)

  • OH090
  • Collection
  • April 27, 2006

Landau discusses his experiences working with the Washington University School of Medicine's Program in Physical Therapy.
Interview conducted by Susan Deusinger of the Physical Therapy Department, WUSM. Approximate Length: 14 minutes.  See also the William M. Landau Papers (FC119).

Landau, William M.

William D. Owens Oral History

  • OH091
  • Collection

Interviewed by Robert K. Stoelting in 2006. Approximate Length: 37 minutes.

Owens discusses his career as an anesthesiologist; his work with national medical organizations such as the American Society of Anesthesiologists; and changes in the relationship between anesthesiologists and nurse anesthetists.

Owens, William D.

Jessie L. Ternberg Oral History

  • OH034
  • Collection
  • May 8, 1978

Interviewed by Estelle Brodman in 1978. Approximate Length: 2 hours and 40 minutes.

Ternberg, Jessie L.

Park J. White Oral History

  • OH036
  • Collection
  • 1/29/1979

White discusses his decision to come to St. Louis Children’s Hospital and the Washington University School of Medicine in 1920, and his interaction with Williams McKim Marriott. He describes the medical ethics course he taught for over twenty years. White shares his views on fee-splitting, abortion and birth control, euthanasia, women in medicine, malpractice insurance, and answers a question about his involvement in the integration of the Academy of Pediatrics in the 1940’s. The discussion covers White’s medical practice and treatment of disadvantaged children and the prevalence of lead-poisoning in that population. The interview concludes with White reciting one of his poems. Interviewed by Darryl Podoll on January 29, 1979. OH036. Approximate Length 60 minutes.

White, Park J.

Oliver H. Lowry Oral History

  • FC137
  • Collection
  • June 16, 1972

Lowry discusses the life and work of Helen Tredway Graham, a member of the department of pharmacology of the Washington University School of Medicine from 1925-1971. Lowry discusses their work together studying histamines.

Interviewed by Darryl Podoll on June 16, 1972. 7 minutes

Lowry, Oliver H.

Benjamin Milder Oral History

  • FC162
  • Collection
  • 2006

In his 2006 oral history, Milder discusses growing up in St. Louis and his career as an ophthalmologist. He reminisces about his classmates and professors at medical school, the history of the practice of ophthalmology in St. Louis, and talks about some of his published books.

Milder, Benjamin

Viktor Hamburger Oral History

  • FC132
  • Collection
  • June 30, 1983

Hamburger discusses major points in his long career as an embryologist – his early work in Germany with Hans Spemann and the study of the organizer effect; his experience coming to the United States in 1932 as a Rockefeller fellow and staying on after Hitler’s “cleansing of the professions” in Germany; joining the faculty of Washington University and his research there. Hamburger talks about his colleagues such as Rita Levi-Montalcini and their discovery of naturally occurring neuronal death, his work with Levi-Montalcini and Stanley Cohen on the discovery of nerve growth factor (NGF), and his study of animal behavior development and motility.

Hamburger, Viktor

John C. Herweg Papers

  • FC092
  • Collection
  • 1990-2017

Tape of Oral history interview with John Herweg by Candace O'Connor along with her notes from the interview. Two biographical accounts on John Herweg include "In the Interest of Small Children," which was prepared on Herweg's retirement as Associate Dean for Students in 1990 from oral history and other published souces in the archives. It was produced at the request of Library Director, Susan Crawford and M. Kenton King, Danforth Professor of Preventive Medicine.

Herweg, John C.

H. Rommel Hildreth Oral History

  • FC134
  • Collection
  • 8 April 1981

Hildreth discusses the dispute between the Washington University School of Medicine and Barnes Hospital in the early 1960s, and the roles of Edgar M. Queeny (chairman of the Trustees of Barnes Hospital), Edward W. Dempsey (dean of the medical school), consultants Joseph Hinsey and John H. Knowles, and Washington University chancellor George Pake. Hildreth also talks about some of the faculty of the medical school while he was a student in the mid-1920s, such as Evarts A. Graham and Joseph Erlanger.

Hildreth, H. Rommel

John A. Pierce Oral History

  • FC128
  • Collection

Pierce discusses the career of his colleague Alfred Goldman, a 1920 graduate of the Washington University School of Medicine and, for fifty years, a member of the clinical faculty of the school. Pierce describes some of Goldman’s early research on the effect of chilling on the development of upper respiratory disease, the physiology of hyperventilation, and tetany. Goldman’s great skill working and relating to both his patients and with students is described. Pierce comments on Goldman’s careful scholarship and tenacity as a researcher as well as his dedication to his family and to his patients.

Pierce, John A.

Lee N. Robins Papers

  • FC142
  • Collection
  • 1958-2002

The Lee Robins Papers consist of twelve organizational series on Lee Robins' research and her family.  The research studies (Series 1) and Interview schedules (Series 2) are the most noteworthy materials and the bulk of the collection.   Also included are family and professional photographs (Series 5), a full set of journal articles (Series 3), and her correspondence (Series 6-8) and manuscripts (Series 4) from her retirement.  Noteworthy in the biographical series (Series 9-10) are the SCRD oral history interviews with Lee Robins (also online) and typed interviews for a biography of Eli Robins.

Robins, Lee N.

Carl F. Cori Oral History

  • OH056
  • Collection
  • 10/18/1982

Cori recounts his education in Trieste and Prague and his service as a medic in World War I. He describes his early research in pharmacology in Europe and then his and his wife’s emigration to the U.S. when Cori accepted a position as chief biochemist at the State Institute for the Study of Malignant Disease in Buffalo, New York in 1922. The interview covers Cori’s acceptance of the position of head of the Department of Pharmacology at the Washington University School of Medicine in 1931, his gradual shift to the Department of Biochemistry and winning the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine with his wife and Bernardo Houssay in 1947. Cori discusses several of his colleagues at the Washington University School of Medicine, including Leo Loeb, Joseph Erlanger, Evarts A. Graham, Robert J. Terry, Oliver Lowry, and W. McKim Marriott.

The audio quality of the interview is inconsistent. Interviewed by Paul G. Anderson on October 18, 1982. OH056. Approximate Length 90 minutes.

Cori, Carl F.

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