- January 1964
Interviewed by Estelle Brodman and Margaret Erlanger in 1964. Approximate Length: 1 hour and 50 minutes.
Interviewed by Estelle Brodman and Margaret Erlanger in 1964. Approximate Length: 1 hour and 50 minutes.
Interviewed by Marion Hunt in 1991.
King, M. Kenton (Morris Kenton)
Guze discusses his experience as a student of the Washington University School of Medicine in the early 1940s, and his memories of faculty members such as Carl and Gerty Cori, Mildred Trotter, Ethel Ronzoni Bishop, Joseph Erlanger, Barry Wood, Evarts A. Graham, Helen Tredway Graham, Sarah Luse, and Carl Moore. Guze explains how his interest in the field of psychiatry developed and the influence of George Saslow on his career. He also discusses building the psychiatry program at Washington University with his colleagues Eli Robins and George Winokur, his work on the genetics of psychiatric disorders, and the interest and development of child psychiatry as a discipline within the medical school. Colleagues such as M. Kenton King. Virginia Weldon, Paula J. Clayton, Lee Robins, and James Anthony are discussed. This oral history consists of a series of seven interviews conducted in 1994. The interviews were transcribed and edited by the interviewer, Marion Hunt, in 1994. The transcription was corrected and annotated by the interviewee in 1995. Interviewed by Marion Hunt in 1994. OH066. Approximate Length 49 leaves.
Guze, Samuel B.
Kissane, John M.
Transcript consists of interview notes taken while researching an article on three faculty members - Mildred Trotter, Ernie Sachs, and Carl Moore - at the Washington University School of Medicine. Loeb comments about all three, relating stories about them as teachers and colleagues.
Interviewed by Candace O'Connor in 2003.
Loeb, Virgil, Jr.
Interviewed by Candace O'Connor in 2004.
Herweg, John C.
Candace O'Connor conducted the interview with John Herweg as part of her research in the history of the St. Louis Children’s Hospital for the hospital’s 125th anniversary publication. Approximate Length: 1 hour and 53 minutes.
O'Connor asked John Herweg to discuss his experiences at St. Louis Children's Hospital during the Alexis Hartmann era, 1936-early 1960s. As a medical student at Washington University in 1942-1945. he found the milieu at Children's Hospital was exciting, almost magical, because the medical and nursing staff were early adopters of each new antibiotic. Diagnosis was key in cures of children with meningitis and mastoiditis, who could be cured if caught in time. The pediatrician in-chief Alexis Hartmann Sr. and Jean Valjean cook provided guidance to the medical students in their sophomore, junior and senior years to save children’s lives.
Herwig reviews his experience as a student, intern, and resident of the Washington University School of Medicine in the early 1940s, and his memories of thrilling teachers such as Hartmann Sr. and Zebatine Hybias???? [Zentay?}. They knew medicine not only the laboratory aspects but clinical aspects. Hartmann brought patients and their mothers to the amphitheatre as well as the clinic where students saw clinical practice demonstrated. Herwig also rubbed shoulders with outstanding people who were research scientists besides the five research scientists, who were or were about to be Nobel Laureates including Carl and Gerty Cori, Joseph Erlanger, and Dr. Hershey in Bacterioiogy.
Hartmann insisted that Herweg stay for his internship and residency. Herwig was one of the bright medical students that Hartman recruited into pediatrics and nutured along. He helped them rise.
He mentions his first wife, Janet Scovill, who had finished her pediatric residency at Children’s (Which Children’s ) before him. [She died in 1958.} He also speaks of his present wife Dottie Glahn, who was head nurse of the infant ward at St. Louis Children’s Hospital from 1947-1959.
The interviewer asked him his recollections of Mrs. Langenberg, Gracie Jones and other women on women on the Board of Children’s hospital. He also briefly discussed interactions with Estelle Claiborne, the hospital administrator.
He recalls that World War II’s major effect on St. Louis Children’s Hospital was reduction of the number of house officers. The residents who were in charge of the hospital during the nighttime hours were consequently overworked.
The budget was very stringent at the end of the war. For example there were 2 glass syringes and they had to be autoclaved before use and they were in constant use. The staff cooled Patients were co by blowing a fan over a 50 pound cake of ice to make up for a lack of air conditioning.
Concerning the Butler Ward, the segregated ward for African-Americans, he admits the house officers might have integrated Children's Hospital earlier. He thought integration came about when Dave Golden called up Hartmann later and said he wanted to put an African patient on a ward by treatment needed rather than in the Butler ward. Hartmann agreed and Herwig thought that was the beginning of integration of St. Louis Chidlren's Hospital.
As to whether Hartmann sr. was prejudiced, Herweg didn't think so. He said Hartmann sr. had good relations with Helen and Homer Nash and later Alison Nash, Homer's daughter, at Homer G. Phillips Hospital. But he notes that Hartman wasn't an activist like Park White. He then recalls his impressions of Park White who he also admired.
Herweg, John C.
Interviewed by Paul Anderson in 2006. Interviewed in three parts (09/27/2006; 10/04/2006; 10/18/2006).
Kipnis, David M.
In this oral history project, Dr. Bryan Sisk performed interviews with 35 individuals with notable roles in the development of pediatric palliative care as a discipline and a philosophy. Dr. Sisk was a clinical fellow in pediatric hematology and oncology when he developed this project and performed the interviews. He had rigorous training in qualitative research and a strong interest in history related to children’s pain and suffering. Selection of participants was based on review of the historical literature for a prior publication related to this area (*). Additionally, Dr. Sisk asked interviewees for recommendations for other potential participants. During interviews, he followed an interview guide but he also allowed the interviewee to redirect the conversation.
These interviews were all recorded remotely, either via telephone or video-conferencing software. Audio files were professionally transcribed and proofed for grammar and accuracy. Interviewees were allowed to review these transcripts and make grammatical corrections. Also, interviewees were allowed to suggest additions or retractions from the transcript to ensure their meaning was clear. We marked all additions with brackets and all retractions with ellipses. In consultation with the Washington University Institutional Review Board (IRB), this project was not deemed to be human subjects research, and thus was not subject to review by the IRB.
(*) Sisk, Bryan A., et al. "Response to Suffering of the Seriously Ill Child: A History of Palliative Care for Children." Pediatrics, Volume 145, Number 1, January 2020, e20191741.
Interview conducted by Susan Deusinger of the Physical Therapy Department, WUSM.
Caldwell, Cheryl Ann
Interview conducted by Susan Deusinger, Director of the Program in Physical Therapy, WUSM with Ruth "Billie" Clark.
In the first interview Cowdry describes his early days at the Peking Union Medical College, established by the Rockefeller Foundation in China, from 1917 to 1921. He describes the state of medical education and practice of medicine in China at that time. The second interview concerns the 15th Japan Medical Congress in March-April, 1959 and the work of Dr. H. Marvin Pollard and his survey of Japanese teaching hospitals.
Interviewed by Walter W. Walker in 1969. Approximate Length: 90 minutes.
Cowdry, E. V. (Edmund Vincent)
Dock discusses his preclinical education in medical school in the late 1910s at Washington University School of Medicine and early research with cathode ray oscilloscopes. He talks about his father, George Dock, who was professor of medicine (1910-1922) and dean (1910-1912) of the WUSM, and the differences in medical education in his father’s and his generations. Dock discusses his impressions of members of the WUSM faculty, including Joseph Erlanger, Robert J. Terry, and Eugene Opie. He also relates some of his experiences as a pathology professor at several medical schools. Interviewed by Paul G. Anderson on October 5, 1981. OH053. Approximate Length 90 minutes.
Dock, William S.
An interview of the Washington University Medical Center Desegregation History Project, conducted by Edwin W. McCleskey and associates, 1990. Approximate Length: 19 minutes.
David Goldrings relates stories he heard and his own experience with the admission of black children to St. Louis Children’s Hospital.
He begins with stories he heard about the attitude of chiefs of pediatrics, hospital administrators, and hospital board toward the admission of black children to children’s Hospital. John Howland was the first chief of pediatrics at the Hospital and he left to go to Johns Hopkins Hospital after 6 months because the Hospital board was opposed to the admission of black children to the hospital. This situation changed when St. Louis Children's Hospital opened the Butler Ward, a black only ward in 1923.
David Goldring’s own experience began with his internship and residency in 1941-1944. One night, a black child needed an incubator and there was none in the Butler ward. So David Goldring admitted him to the infant ward. Estelle Claiborne told David Goldring that this was the sort of thing that got interns fired and reported it to Alexis Hartmann Sr., his chief of pediatrics by a phone call. She was quite angry that Hartmann let the admission stand, but integration did not happen frequently in the war years.
Integration of the staff of St. Louis Children's Hospital began with the Nash family. Helen Nash joined the medical staff in 1949 and Homer Nash in 1955. For years before, Park J. White was committed to the training of African American interns and residents as an attending physician for 25 years at Homer G. Phillips. David Goldring and Neil Middlecamp were aso attendings in pediatrics at Homer G. Phillips Hospital for about 10 years.
An interview of the Washington University Medical Center Desegregation History Project, conducted by Edwin W. McCleskey and associates, 1990. Approximate Length: 49 minutes. Interviewers, Bill Geideman and James Carter.
Guze discusses his experience with segregation and desegregation of Barnes Hospital, Renard Hospital, its psychiatric service and unit. He guessed the psychiatric service desegregated the Barnes Hospital psychiatric unit in October 1953.
He and the interviewers had a clearer timeline for desegregation of admission of medical students to the Washington University School of Medicine. He said the executive faculty gave the admissions committee discretion in flexible criteria for admission for those with disadvantaged educational background. Roy Vagelos of Biochemistry was a key player on the Executive Faculty along with John Herweg, who headed the admissions committee starting in the early 1960s. Guze recalled that the first African American medical student (1953?) had difficulty and the second had no difficulty, but the executive faculty wanted more African Americans admitted and numbers did not start to go up significantly until about 1968. This was due to the hiring of Bob Lee, Dean of Minority Affairs, whose sole responsibility at first was minority students.
Guze discusses the parallel but related desegregation of the St. Louis City Hospital and health care systems. He notes that the segregated city healthcare system included two large general hospitals, Homer G. Phillips (St. Louis City Hospital no. 2) built in 1937 on the north side for African-Americans and older St. Louis City Hospital (no. 1 or Max Starkloff) for whites on the south side. He said there was one psychiatric unit at the Malcolm Bliss Center for whites and a separate psychiatric unit for blacks run by black psychiatrists at Homer G. Phillips Hospital. And he recalled that there was a long-standing formal teaching arrangement with 'Max Starkloff or St. Louis City Hospital no. 1 in several services on the south side including psychiatry, medicine, surgery, infectious disease unit, laboratory and isolation unit. But he noted the teaching arrangement with Homer G. Phillips Hospital was less complete and depended on personal relationships in each Service. For example the teaching arrangement with the Surgery Service at Homer G. Phillips was more complete because of the efforts of Robert Elman of the Surgery Department at Washington University School of Medicine to have regular teaching rounds at Homer G. Phillips. Guze notes that desegregation of both facilities led the city to evaluate whether the city needed two large general hospital complexes. A group of black physicians approached Guze in the 1970s about an affiliation, but Guze insisted on conditions that Homer G. Phillips was not prepared to meet then including the right to appoint medical staff.
Guze, Samuel B.
Hiebert discusses his experiences as a student at the Washington University School of Medicine in the 1920s and the influence of some of his professors such as Vilray P. Blair. Hiebert also discusses his career as a plastic surgeon. Interviewed by Darryl Podoll on May 16, 1975. OH018. Approximate Length 23 minutes.
Hiebert, Abraham E.
Interview conducted by Susan Deusinger of the Physical Therapy Department, WUSM. Approximate Length: 48 minutes.
Hildreth discusses the dispute between the Washington University School of Medicine and Barnes Hospital in the early 1960s, and the roles of Edgar M. Queeny (chairman of the Trustees of Barnes Hospital), Edward W. Dempsey (dean of the medical school), consultants Joseph Hinsey and John H. Knowles, and Washington University chancellor George Pake. Hildreth also talks about some of the faculty of the medical school while he was a student in the mid-1920s, such as Evarts A. Graham and Joseph Erlanger. Interviewed by Estelle Brodman on April 8, 1981. OH030. Approximate Length 53 minutes.
Hildreth, H. Rommel
Interviewed by Mara Mills in 2006. Approximate Length: 72 minutes.
Hirsh, Ira J.
Hudgens relates some of his experiences as a student at WUSM in the 1950s and some of his influential professors, such as Edward Dempsey, Carl Moore, George Saslow, and Sam Guze. Hudgens also discusses the development of his interest in psychiatry, his medical residencies in Virginia and North Carolina, his experiences as a staff psychiatrist at the U.S. Air Force Hospital at Lackland AFB in Texas, and his experiences on the faculty and in the administration of the Washington University School of Medicine. Interviewed by Paul G. Anderson on April 28, 1981. OH049. Approximate Length 59 minutes.
Hudgens, Richard W.