See Index to Items in Map Case.
See Index to Items in Map Case.
Exactly why the backers of Barnes University chose in 1912 to rename their institution National University of Arts and Sciences is unknown, although it is possible to speculate that whereas construction of the (totally unrelated) Barnes Hospital was by then underway, the hospital trustees perhaps asserted claims to exclusive rights to the Barnes name. National University established an undergraduate college in 1913, with courses initially offered in the medical building, then in 1915 moved to a structure at Grand and Delmar Boulevards. The institution attempted as well to operate a preparatory academy. After Christian Hospital withdrew from administration of the former Centenary structure, what was left of the inpatient facility was renamed National Hospital. Also in 1915, a merger was announced between the medical department and the St. Louis College of Physician and Surgeons, another financially beleaguered independent school. This arrangement failed, however, with Physicians and Surgeons withdrawing its faculty and students in 1916. That year witnessed the end of all the National departments but medicine. In 1918 the last medical class graduated and National’s clinical facilities ceased to treat patients.
National University of Arts and Sciences, St. Louis, Missouri
Barnes Medical College was organized in 1892 as a for-profit venture by a group of physicians and business leaders and named in honor of a recently deceased merchant, Robert A. Barnes (1808-1892). Barnes had bequeathed money for the construction of a hospital and it has been widely presumed that the educators’ choice of name was part of an attempt to secure an affiliation between the two institutions. If so, the attempt failed, for the trustees of the Robert A. Barnes estate chose instead to reinvest the assets and wait for a more favorable time to build Barnes Hospital. Ignoring the rebuff, the college trustees constructed a building of their own at 2645 Chestnut (later renamed Lawton) Street. The institution quickly became the largest medical college in the city (ca. 400 students) and its program outgrew the original structure. In 1896 a second building opened two blocks west, on Lawson at Garrison Avenue. In 1902 the objective of a college-related clinical facility was achieved with the establishment of Centenary Hospital and the Barnes Dispensary in a new adjoining building. The institution also operated a dental college (see below), a college of pharmacy, and a nurses’ training program. At its height, the college enrolled approximately 600 students, and in 1904 changed its name to Barnes University. Despite these enhancements and changes of name, it became increasing apparent that the institution was financially unstable. The trustees offered their properties to the Curators of the University of Missouri in 1906 to house the state medical college. The negotiations lasted over a year and the Curators came close to accepting what seemed at first to be a generous offer. In the end, however, the state refused to pay the private venture’s debts and plans for the connection collapsed in 1908. During this same period, Barnes did absorb a smaller private school, the Hippocratean College of Medicine. Flexner severely criticized the Barnes institutions in 1909, however, a contemporary reviewer writing for the American Medical Association (Philip Skrainka, 1910) judged their quality “good.” One year following the merger with American Medical College in 1911 the names Barnes ceased to refer to medical instruction by this organization. For a brief period (1911-1914?) the Centenary facility was administered by Christian Hospital. From 1919 until 1936 the city of St. Louis used the building as a hospital for African American patients (City Hospital No. 2). The structures at Garrison and Lawton were demolished in 1960.
Barnes Medical College, Saint Louis
During most of its history, Barnes Dental College was operated by an executive committee of three dentists, George H. Owen, Otto J. Fruth, and D. E. Morrow, who entered into contracts on an annual basis with Barnes University or its successor, National University.
American Medical College was organized in 1873. Its backers were promoters of “eclecticism,” which was an approach to therapeutics that emphasized herbal remedies. The first class graduated in 1874, when instruction was offered at 7th and Olive Streets. The college admitted two classes each subsequent year up to 1883, thereafter a single class annually but with a longer term of instruction. From 1878 until 1890 the institution was located at 310 North 11th Street in St. Louis, and then moved to 407 S. Jefferson Avenue. Some time around 1900 the faculty staffed what was billed as “the only eclectic hospital in the west,” Metropolitan Hospital, but this facility evidently did not remain open long. Flexner graded American along with several other Missouri medical schools as “utterly wretched” following his visit in 1909. In 1910 the college abandoned eclecticism and formally embraced “regular” medicine. The college purchased a new building and also opened a second hospital and a dispensary on Pine Street at Theresa Avenue. Again the clinical facilities were short-lived. In 1911 American merged with nearby Barnes University. The combined institution was renamed National University in 1912.
American Medical College of St. Louis
Barnes University formed a dental department, the Barnes Dental College in 1905. It continued under this name even after the parent institution became known as National University in 1912. It ceased to function with the graduation of the class of 1916.
Scrapbooks compiled originally by the WUSM Public Relations Office include clippings, brochures, and reprinted articles mainly from St. Louis newspapers and campus sources. These materials describe a wide range of activities of faculty, staff and their departments and divisions. The WUSM Public Relations Office was an earlier incarnation of Medical Public Affairs.
Medical Public Affairs, Washington University School of Medicine
Part of Max A. Goldstein Papers
This series can be considered a significant body of evidence concerning Dr. Goldstein's interest in assembling his antique hearing device collection, part of the Visual Collections of the Becker Library. The series was a gift of CID in 1983 (Accession 84-056). Box 2. Not microfilmed.
Part of George Homan Papers
Extended notes and memoranda of lectures, forty in number, delivered in the annual courses on hygiene and forensic medicine, 1886-1893, including official correspondence of the Faculty concerning appointment to and resignation from the Chair.
Part of Thomas H. Burford Papers
Series includes staff memorials, C.V.s, obituaries, biographical information, and lists. Larger biographical collections for Samuel Gray, Alexander Earle Horwitz, Hanau and Virgil Loeb, Jesse Myer, Samuel E. Newman, Selig Simon, Samuel D. Soule, Herman Tuholske, and Henry Lincoln Wolfner are included in this series. These larger biographical collections may include more newspaper clippings, longer biographical write-ups, and personal papers. This series includes one sub-series division, with the sub-series containing memorial volumes to significant Jewish Hospital staff members or donors. The remainder of the series includes Jewish Hospital staff C.V.s, biographical files, obituaries, and requests for memorial plaques for deceased staff members, as well as lists of staff members of various departments for various years. The series also includes portions of an exhibit on staff member Carl Heifetz.
This series contains documents related to the organization, management, and creation of Jewish Hospital. The series is divided in four subseries, with the first sub-series containing significant documents related to the hospital’s founding and evolution up to 1977. The second sub-series contains reports, strategies, and studies related to hospital public relations and marketing. The third sub-series contains regulatory documents for the hospital including by-laws, amendments, and constitutions, and the fourth sub-series contains architectural documents related to the hospital buildings’ growth over the years. The remainder of the series contains President David Gee’s directory; informational documents related to Jewish Hospital’s association with Washington University; reports and correspondence of various committees; and a binder related to Dr. Morton Pareira’s time at Jewish Hospital.
Records included in series 12 are hospital publications of shorter length, which provide more introductory and brief information on their subjects than do the hospital publications in series 9. The items included in the series are split into eleven sub-series by topic covered. These topics are associated organizations, employee-targeted, financial, hospital departments, histories, hospital overviews, philanthropy, general patient guides, program-specific patient guides, reports to the community, and photographic timelines.