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Only top-level descriptions Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine
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Samuel B. Guze Oral History (OH102)

  • OH102
  • Collection

An interview of the Washington University Medical Center Desegregation History Project, conducted by Edwin W. McCleskey and associates, 1990. Approximate Length: 49 minutes. Interviewers, Bill Geideman and James Carter.

Guze discusses his experience with segregation and desegregation of Barnes Hospital, Renard Hospital, its psychiatric service and unit. He guessed the psychiatric service desegregated the Barnes Hospital psychiatric unit in October 1953.

He and the interviewers had a clearer timeline for desegregation of admission of medical students to the Washington University School of Medicine. He said the executive faculty gave the admissions committee discretion in flexible criteria for admission for those with disadvantaged educational background. Roy Vagelos of Biochemistry was a key player on the Executive Faculty along with John Herweg, who headed the admissions committee starting in the early 1960s. Guze recalled that the first African American medical student (1953?) had difficulty and the second had no difficulty, but the executive faculty wanted more African Americans admitted and numbers did not start to go up significantly until about 1968. This was due to the hiring of Bob Lee, Dean of Minority Affairs, whose sole responsibility at first was minority students.

Guze discusses the parallel but related desegregation of the St. Louis City Hospital and health care systems. He notes that the segregated city healthcare system included two large general hospitals, Homer G. Phillips (St. Louis City Hospital no. 2) built in 1937 on the north side for African-Americans and older St. Louis City Hospital (no. 1 or Max Starkloff) for whites on the south side. He said there was one psychiatric unit at the Malcolm Bliss Center for whites and a separate psychiatric unit for blacks run by black psychiatrists at Homer G. Phillips Hospital. And he recalled that there was a long-standing formal teaching arrangement with 'Max Starkloff or St. Louis City Hospital no. 1 in several services on the south side including psychiatry, medicine, surgery, infectious disease unit, laboratory and isolation unit. But he noted the teaching arrangement with Homer G. Phillips Hospital was less complete and depended on personal relationships in each Service. For example the teaching arrangement with the Surgery Service at Homer G. Phillips was more complete because of the efforts of Robert Elman of the Surgery Department at Washington University School of Medicine to have regular teaching rounds at Homer G. Phillips. Guze notes that desegregation of both facilities led the city to evaluate whether the city needed two large general hospital complexes. A group of black physicians approached Guze in the 1970s about an affiliation, but Guze insisted on conditions that Homer G. Phillips was not prepared to meet then including the right to appoint medical staff.

Guze, Samuel B.

Samuel B. Guze Oral History (OH065)

  • OH065
  • Collection
  • October 11, 1989

Interviewed by Richard W. Hudgens in 1989.

This is a five part interview on the history of the Neuropsychiatry department and the psychiatry department of Washington University School of Medicine. Part 1 begins with questions on the neuropsychiatry department in World War II beginning with Edward Gildea. He was a proponent of biological psychiatry, but was tolerant of the psychoanalysts on staff like his wife Margaret Gildea. Guze discusses the dynamic between the biologically oriented faculty Gildea appointed such as George Saslow, Eli Robins and George Winokur and himself. He also mentions George Ulett and David Graham. Guze explains how he got into psychiatry, when his initial goal was to be an internist. He also describes in the end of part 1 and beginning of part 2 how in 1955, Guze, Robins and Winokur, the three assistant professor in Psychiatry in 1955 went to Gildea with their plan for a biologically oriented psychiatry department. Gildea was supportive and they divided up duties. In the training of students, biological psychiatry emphasizes diagnosis and research, clinical studies of etiology including neuropathology, pharmacology, and neurochemistry. Eli Robins was the prime mover in the movement on regularizing diagnostic criteria. At the end of part 2, Guze discusses Gildeas strengths and weaknesses and is asked about Gildea's conflict with James O'Leary. Guze is asked how Eli Robins became head of the new Psychiatry Department. Dr. Ulett was also a contender for department chair. in part 3, Guze discusses Robins era and the effect of Eli's multiple sclerosis on his own research and the psychiatry department. In part 5, Guze discusses how he met Joy Guze, his wife and his childhood especially parents and grandparents and schooling. Antisemitic quotas affected admission to medical schools particularly before World War II.

Guze, Samuel B.

Samuel B. Guze Papers

  • FC065
  • Collection
  • 1946-2000

The Samuel B. Guze Papers are arranged in eleven organizational series. The bulk of this large collection is contained in Series 3 (General Files) and Series 5 (Manuscripts). Included in the Guze Papers are letters, journal articles, and handwritten notes. However, a significant portion of the collection consists of drafts of articles that Dr. Guze and his colleagues compiled for publication, as well as the corresponding data collection documents used for research and analysis. Especially noteworthy in the Guze Papers are the two oral histories taken with Dr. Guze, as well as his personal diary located in Series 10. For more detailed information regarding the content of this collection, see the individual series descriptions and container lists.

Guze, Samuel B.

Eli Robins Papers

  • FC077
  • Collection
  • 1947-1994

The Eli Robins papers are arranged in twenty-seven organizational series on the administration of the Psychiatry Department from 1962-1975 and the research of the Eli Robins labs.  The bulk of the collection is in the General Correspondence files (Series 4), General files (Series 5), Associations and Societies (Series 6), and Laboratory Notebooks and Records (Series 19).  Included in the Robins papers are letters, a complete set of Journal articles (Series 1), and handwritten notes. In addition, there are drafts of articles that Dr. Robins and members of his lab compiled for publication and corresponding data collection documents used for research and analysis.

Robins, Eli