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Barnes Hospital (Saint Louis, Mo.) Oral History
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Samuel B. Guze Oral History (OH102)

  • OH102
  • Collection

An interview of the Washington University Medical Center Desegregation History Project, conducted by Edwin W. McCleskey and associates, 1990. Approximate Length: 49 minutes. Interviewers, Bill Geideman and James Carter.

Guze discusses his experience with segregation and desegregation of Barnes Hospital, Renard Hospital, its psychiatric service and unit. He guessed the psychiatric service desegregated the Barnes Hospital psychiatric unit in October 1953.

He and the interviewers had a clearer timeline for desegregation of admission of medical students to the Washington University School of Medicine. He said the executive faculty gave the admissions committee discretion in flexible criteria for admission for those with disadvantaged educational background. Roy Vagelos of Biochemistry was a key player on the Executive Faculty along with John Herweg, who headed the admissions committee starting in the early 1960s. Guze recalled that the first African American medical student (1953?) had difficulty and the second had no difficulty, but the executive faculty wanted more African Americans admitted and numbers did not start to go up significantly until about 1968. This was due to the hiring of Bob Lee, Dean of Minority Affairs, whose sole responsibility at first was minority students.

Guze discusses the parallel but related desegregation of the St. Louis City Hospital and health care systems. He notes that the segregated city healthcare system included two large general hospitals, Homer G. Phillips (St. Louis City Hospital no. 2) built in 1937 on the north side for African-Americans and older St. Louis City Hospital (no. 1 or Max Starkloff) for whites on the south side. He said there was one psychiatric unit at the Malcolm Bliss Center for whites and a separate psychiatric unit for blacks run by black psychiatrists at Homer G. Phillips Hospital. And he recalled that there was a long-standing formal teaching arrangement with 'Max Starkloff or St. Louis City Hospital no. 1 in several services on the south side including psychiatry, medicine, surgery, infectious disease unit, laboratory and isolation unit. But he noted the teaching arrangement with Homer G. Phillips Hospital was less complete and depended on personal relationships in each Service. For example the teaching arrangement with the Surgery Service at Homer G. Phillips was more complete because of the efforts of Robert Elman of the Surgery Department at Washington University School of Medicine to have regular teaching rounds at Homer G. Phillips. Guze notes that desegregation of both facilities led the city to evaluate whether the city needed two large general hospital complexes. A group of black physicians approached Guze in the 1970s about an affiliation, but Guze insisted on conditions that Homer G. Phillips was not prepared to meet then including the right to appoint medical staff.

Guze, Samuel B.

Richard W. Hudgens Oral History

  • OH049
  • Collection
  • 4/28/1981

Hudgens relates some of his experiences as a student at WUSM in the 1950s and some of his influential professors, such as Edward Dempsey, Carl Moore, George Saslow, and Sam Guze. Hudgens also discusses the development of his interest in psychiatry, his medical residencies in Virginia and North Carolina, his experiences as a staff psychiatrist at the U.S. Air Force Hospital at Lackland AFB in Texas, and his experiences on the faculty and in the administration of the Washington University School of Medicine. Interviewed by Paul G. Anderson on April 28, 1981. OH049. Approximate Length 59 minutes.

Hudgens, Richard W.

H. Rommel Hildreth Oral History

  • OH030
  • Collection
  • 4/8/1981

Hildreth discusses the dispute between the Washington University School of Medicine and Barnes Hospital in the early 1960s, and the roles of Edgar M. Queeny (chairman of the Trustees of Barnes Hospital), Edward W. Dempsey (dean of the medical school), consultants Joseph Hinsey and John H. Knowles, and Washington University chancellor George Pake. Hildreth also talks about some of the faculty of the medical school while he was a student in the mid-1920s, such as Evarts A. Graham and Joseph Erlanger.  Interviewed by Estelle Brodman on April 8, 1981. OH030. Approximate Length 53 minutes.

Hildreth, H. Rommel

Franklin E. Walton Oral History

  • OH015
  • Collection
  • March 11, 1975

Walton discusses his experiences as a student and faculty member of the Washington University School of Medicine; notable colleagues such as Evarts A. Graham; his experiences during the Second World War; and his work at Barnes Hospital.

Interviewed by Estelle Brodman in 1975. Approximate Length: 6 hours and 46 minutes.

Walton, Franklin E., 1902-1981

A.N. Arneson, John E. Hobbs, and Melvin A. Roblee Oral History

  • OH026
  • Collection
  • 5/24/1976

The three physicians discuss their experiences as students at the Washington University School of Medicine in the 1920s; changes in medical practice and education during the 20th century; and changes in the study and practice of obstetrics and gynecology. Arneson, Hobbs, and Roblee also relate stories about Barnes Hospital, St. Louis Maternity Hospital, surgeons Evarts A. Graham and Ernest Sachs, physiologist Joseph Erlanger, and obstetricians Henry Schwarz and Otto Henry Schwarz. Interviewed by Estelle Brodman on May 24, 1976. OH026. Approximate Length 87 minutes.

Arneson, A.N. (Axel Norman)

Ethan A. H. Shepley Oral History

  • OH003
  • Collection
  • 10/23/1969

Shepley recounts the reorganization of the Washington University School of Medicine and its affiliated hospitals into WUMSAH (Washington University Medical School and Affiliated Hospitals). He discusses the conflict between the School of Medicine and the board of Barnes Hospitals, and the roles of the individuals involved in the formation of WUMSAH, including Edgar M. Queeny, Edward W. Dempsey, James S. McDonnell, and William H. Danforth. The audio quality of the interview is poor. Interviewed by Walter W. Walker on October 23, 1969. OH003. Approximate Length 30 minutes.

Shepley, Ethan A. H.

Paul E. Lacy Oral History

  • OH041
  • Collection
  • December 17, 1979

Interviewed by Richard E. Lynch in 1979. Approximate Length: 87 minutes.
Lacy discusses his early research while in medical school and during post-doctoral training at the Mayo Clinic, which led to his interest in studying the islets of Langerhans and in the transplantation of islets as a cure for diabetes. Lacy also discusses his responsibilities as chairman of the WUSM Department of Pathology and the conflict between Barnes Hospital and WUSM in the early 1960s. Colleagues, such as Edward Dempsey and Stanley Hartroft, are discussed, as well as many other scientists whose research influenced Lacy's work.

Lacy, Paul E.

William M. Landau Oral History (OH107)

  • OH107
  • Collection
  • June 15, 1990

An interview of the Washington University Medical Center Desegregation History Project, conducted by Edwin W. McCleskey, James Carter, and William Guideman, 1990. Approximate Length: 67 minutes. See also the William M. Landau Papers (FC119).

Landau discusses his experience with segregation in St. Louis as a child and as medical student, house officer, and resident at Barnes Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine as background to the desegregation of hospitals and Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. He recalls the desegregation of Barnes Hospital was set in motion by David Goldring, Alexis Hartman Sr. and ? Park White trained African American pediatricians through his world class pediatric residency program at Homer G. Phillips Hospital in the 1940s. Park White also fought get black kids into St. Louis Children's Hospital and his own African American residents as medical staff. Landau recalls the first black medical student's admission in 1951 and his failure due in part to poor preparation but more significantly to a hostile environment. George Saslow, a psychiatrist and head of the outpatient clinic, was key in building a better environment for subsequent black applicants and students.

Landau, William M.