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Martyrologium.

Caption accompanying the print reads: "A martyrology gave information about the saints for each day of the year. As the dates changed, so did the influences of the stars. Each astral body affected a particular part of the human body, as illustrated here. Thus a patient's horoscope was believed to explain his disease. This is the earliest printed picture of a 'zodiacal' and 'blood lettng' man; used with an accompanying chart, it showed the appropriate times and sites for venesection."

Johannes de Ketham, "Fasciculus medicinae."

Caption accompanying the print reads: "The first woodcuts illustrating human anatomy appeared in the 1491 and later editions of this book. As the professor sits in an elevated chair, discoursing from a book but not from the cadaver, an ostensor at the far right directs a menial bending to his work. Some of the robed bystanders seem bored."

Magnus Hundt, "Antopologium," Cap. XXXI.

Caption accompanying the print reads: "A crude woodcut in this rare volume portrays the special senses and nerves of vision (O), hearing (P), smell (Q), and taste (R), the structures from hair (A) to pia mater (G) that cover the brain, the ventricles (S, T, U, X) and other anatomical details. Hundt (1449-1519) was a professor in Leipzig."

Albertus Magnus, "Philosophia naturalis," Cap. XIII.

Caption accompanying the print reads: "The author, who lived in the thirteenth century, has been discussing the soul. The circles represent the lateral, third, and fourth ventricles, or cavities, of the brain. To them medieval scholars assigned the attributes of common sense (I), imagination (II), and memory (III)."

Giacomo Berengario da Carpi, "Isagogae breves," folio 32, verso.

Caption accompanying the print reads: "The aorta was believed to carry not blood but vital spirit throughout the body. The three cusps of the aortic valve were called ostiola. The recurrent laryngeal nerve, nervus revursus, on each side was thought to close the epiglottus by pulling downward. Perhaps this is why the nerve is here represented as cord-like."

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