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Only top-level descriptions Saint Louis (Mo.) Oral History
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Samuel B. Guze Oral History (OH102)

  • OH102
  • Collection

An interview of the Washington University Medical Center Desegregation History Project, conducted by Edwin W. McCleskey and associates, 1990. Approximate Length: 49 minutes. Interviewers, Bill Geideman and James Carter.

Guze discusses his experience with segregation and desegregation of Barnes Hospital, Renard Hospital, its psychiatric service and unit. He guessed the psychiatric service desegregated the Barnes Hospital psychiatric unit in October 1953.

He and the interviewers had a clearer timeline for desegregation of admission of medical students to the Washington University School of Medicine. He said the executive faculty gave the admissions committee discretion in flexible criteria for admission for those with disadvantaged educational background. Roy Vagelos of Biochemistry was a key player on the Executive Faculty along with John Herweg, who headed the admissions committee starting in the early 1960s. Guze recalled that the first African American medical student (1953?) had difficulty and the second had no difficulty, but the executive faculty wanted more African Americans admitted and numbers did not start to go up significantly until about 1968. This was due to the hiring of Bob Lee, Dean of Minority Affairs, whose sole responsibility at first was minority students.

Guze discusses the parallel but related desegregation of the St. Louis City Hospital and health care systems. He notes that the segregated city healthcare system included two large general hospitals, Homer G. Phillips (St. Louis City Hospital no. 2) built in 1937 on the north side for African-Americans and older St. Louis City Hospital (no. 1 or Max Starkloff) for whites on the south side. He said there was one psychiatric unit at the Malcolm Bliss Center for whites and a separate psychiatric unit for blacks run by black psychiatrists at Homer G. Phillips Hospital. And he recalled that there was a long-standing formal teaching arrangement with 'Max Starkloff or St. Louis City Hospital no. 1 in several services on the south side including psychiatry, medicine, surgery, infectious disease unit, laboratory and isolation unit. But he noted the teaching arrangement with Homer G. Phillips Hospital was less complete and depended on personal relationships in each Service. For example the teaching arrangement with the Surgery Service at Homer G. Phillips was more complete because of the efforts of Robert Elman of the Surgery Department at Washington University School of Medicine to have regular teaching rounds at Homer G. Phillips. Guze notes that desegregation of both facilities led the city to evaluate whether the city needed two large general hospital complexes. A group of black physicians approached Guze in the 1970s about an affiliation, but Guze insisted on conditions that Homer G. Phillips was not prepared to meet then including the right to appoint medical staff.

Guze, Samuel B.

David Goldring Oral History

  • OH101
  • Collection
  • July 20, 1990

An interview of the Washington University Medical Center Desegregation History Project, conducted by Edwin W. McCleskey and associates, 1990. Approximate Length: 19 minutes.

David Goldrings relates stories he heard and his own experience with the admission of black children to St. Louis Children’s Hospital.

He begins with stories he heard about the attitude of chiefs of pediatrics, hospital administrators, and hospital board toward the admission of black children to children’s Hospital. John Howland was the first chief of pediatrics at the Hospital and he left to go to Johns Hopkins Hospital after 6 months because the Hospital board was opposed to the admission of black children to the hospital. This situation changed when St. Louis Children's Hospital opened the Butler Ward, a black only ward in 1923.

David Goldring’s own experience began with his internship and residency in 1941-1944. One night, a black child needed an incubator and there was none in the Butler ward. So David Goldring admitted him to the infant ward. Estelle Claiborne told David Goldring that this was the sort of thing that got interns fired and reported it to Alexis Hartmann Sr., his chief of pediatrics by a phone call. She was quite angry that Hartmann let the admission stand, but integration did not happen frequently in the war years.

Integration of the staff of St. Louis Children's Hospital began with the Nash family. Helen Nash joined the medical staff in 1949 and Homer Nash in 1955. For years before, Park J. White was committed to the training of African American interns and residents as an attending physician for 25 years at Homer G. Phillips. David Goldring and Neil Middlecamp were aso attendings in pediatrics at Homer G. Phillips Hospital for about 10 years.

Goldring, David

Andrew B. Jones Oral History

  • OH046
  • Collection
  • October 10, 1980

In his oral history interview, Jones discusses some of his experiences as a medical officer during World War I. He also recalls some of the changes he witnessed over the years in the field of neurology and at the Washington University School of Medicine. Jones recalls some of his colleagues, such as Vilray P. Blair, George Dock, Ernest Sachs, and Sidney Schwab.

Interviewed by Paul Anderson in 1980. Approximate Length: 53 minutes. Grace Jones (Mrs. Andrew B. Jones) was also present and spoke during the interview.

Jones, Andrew B.

Richard W. Hudgens Oral History

  • OH049
  • Collection
  • 4/28/1981

Hudgens relates some of his experiences as a student at WUSM in the 1950s and some of his influential professors, such as Edward Dempsey, Carl Moore, George Saslow, and Sam Guze. Hudgens also discusses the development of his interest in psychiatry, his medical residencies in Virginia and North Carolina, his experiences as a staff psychiatrist at the U.S. Air Force Hospital at Lackland AFB in Texas, and his experiences on the faculty and in the administration of the Washington University School of Medicine. Interviewed by Paul G. Anderson on April 28, 1981. OH049. Approximate Length 59 minutes.

Hudgens, Richard W.

William M. Landau Oral History (OH090)

  • OH090
  • Collection
  • April 27, 2006

Landau discusses his experiences working with the Washington University School of Medicine's Program in Physical Therapy.
Interview conducted by Susan Deusinger of the Physical Therapy Department, WUSM. Approximate Length: 14 minutes.  See also the William M. Landau Papers (FC119).

Landau, William M.

Jessie L. Ternberg Oral History

  • OH034
  • Collection
  • May 8, 1978

Interviewed by Estelle Brodman in 1978. Approximate Length: 2 hours and 40 minutes.

Ternberg, Jessie L.

Franklin E. Walton Oral History

  • OH015
  • Collection
  • March 11, 1975

Walton discusses his experiences as a student and faculty member of the Washington University School of Medicine; notable colleagues such as Evarts A. Graham; his experiences during the Second World War; and his work at Barnes Hospital.

Interviewed by Estelle Brodman in 1975. Approximate Length: 6 hours and 46 minutes.

Walton, Franklin E., 1902-1981

A.N. Arneson, John E. Hobbs, and Melvin A. Roblee Oral History

  • OH026
  • Collection
  • 5/24/1976

The three physicians discuss their experiences as students at the Washington University School of Medicine in the 1920s; changes in medical practice and education during the 20th century; and changes in the study and practice of obstetrics and gynecology. Arneson, Hobbs, and Roblee also relate stories about Barnes Hospital, St. Louis Maternity Hospital, surgeons Evarts A. Graham and Ernest Sachs, physiologist Joseph Erlanger, and obstetricians Henry Schwarz and Otto Henry Schwarz. Interviewed by Estelle Brodman on May 24, 1976. OH026. Approximate Length 87 minutes.

Arneson, A.N. (Axel Norman)

Arthur S. Gilson Oral History

  • OH047
  • Collection
  • 10/17/1980

Arthur Gilson discusses the research and activities of the Department of Physiology at the Washington University School of Medicine in the 1920s and 1930s and several of his colleagues, such as Joseph Erlanger, Herbert Gasser, and George Bishop. He also talks of the axonologists, a discussion group first formed in 1930 at an American Physiological Society meeting. Interviewed by Estelle Brodman on October 17, 1980. OH047. Approximate Length 39 minutes.

Gilson, Arthur S.

Ethan A. H. Shepley Oral History

  • OH003
  • Collection
  • 10/23/1969

Shepley recounts the reorganization of the Washington University School of Medicine and its affiliated hospitals into WUMSAH (Washington University Medical School and Affiliated Hospitals). He discusses the conflict between the School of Medicine and the board of Barnes Hospitals, and the roles of the individuals involved in the formation of WUMSAH, including Edgar M. Queeny, Edward W. Dempsey, James S. McDonnell, and William H. Danforth. The audio quality of the interview is poor. Interviewed by Walter W. Walker on October 23, 1969. OH003. Approximate Length 30 minutes.

Shepley, Ethan A. H.

H. Mitchell Perry Oral History

  • OH074
  • Collection
  • December 16, 1997

Perry discusses his experiences as a medical student at Washington University School of Medicine and Barnes Hospital, his career as a faculty member at WUSM, and his research in hypertension and stroke.

Interviewed by Paul Anderson and Dr. Mabel Purkerson in 1997. Approximate Length: 6 hours.

Perry, H. Mitchell

Robert C. Drews, Miles C. Whitener, and August W. Geise Oral History

  • OH043
  • Collection
  • 5/8/1980

Drews, Whitener and Geise reflect back on their experiences as students at the Washington University School of Medicine in the 1950s and the value of rotating rather than specialized internships. The three physicians discuss some of the memorable faculty members, such as Mildred Trotter, Carl Moyer, Oliver Lowry, and Carl Moore. They also discuss technological and pharmacological changes over the years that have affected the practice of medicine. Interviewed by Paul G. Anderson on May 8, 1980. OH043. Approximate length 63 minutes.

Drews, Robert C.

Robert E. Shank Oral History

  • OH044
  • Collection
  • 6/27/1980

Shank discusses his student years at the Washington University School of Medicine and his research with Dr. David Barr; his research at the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research during World War II; and his postwar research at the Public Health Research Institute for the City of New York. The conversation then focuses on the major research focus of Shank’s career – nutritional studies. Shank relates his experiences conducting nutritional study research in Newfoundland; the study of nutrition during war and the necessity of providing proper nutrition to troops; public health surveys conducted overseas under the auspices of the Interdepartmental Committee on Nutrition for National Defense (ICNND); and his experiences as participant and consultant to the Public Health Service and the Indian Health Service. Shank comments on the challenge of improving nutrition standards in developing countries with steadily increasing populations and the role of the National Research Council and the Food Nutrition Board in the development of standards of recommended dietary allowances of nutrients. He also discusses the growth of the vitamin industry, nutrition in prepared and baby foods, and obesity. The discussion then covers the development of the WUSM Department of Preventive Medicine while Shank was its head – the Irene Walter Johnson Institute of Rehabilitation, the Medical Care Group under its initial director Gerald Perkoff, the division of biostatistics, Health Care Research, applied physiology, epidemiology, and lipid research. Interviewed by Paul G. Anderson on June 27, 1980. OH044. Approximate Length 130 minutes.

Shank, Robert E.

Gerald T. Perkoff Oral History

  • OH013
  • Collection
  • 1/8/1974

Perkoff describes his accelerated educational experience at Washington University during World War II and his decision to accept an internship at the University of Utah. He discusses his early research in metabolic and hereditary diseases at the University of Utah, where he was on the faculty and chief of the medical service of the Veterans Administration Hospital. Perkoff relates his returning to St. Louis, his efforts at St. Louis City Hospital to establish a full-time Department of Medicine, and the founding of the Division of Health Care Research at the Washington University School of Medicine. There is an extended discussion of the establishment of a health maintenance organization at Washington University, the Medical Care Group, its structure, financial structure and goals, and its role in training physicians. Perkoff also discusses the delivery of health care in rural settings, his predictions for the development of allied health personnel programs, and the future of medical care delivery. Interviewed by Estelle Brodman on January 8, 1974. OH013. Approximate Length 85 minutes.

Perkoff, Gerald T.

Frances Stewart Oral History

  • OH033
  • Collection
  • 5/17/1977

Stewart briefly discusses her experiences in medical school at the Washington University School of Medicine, her remembrances of professor Ernest Sachs, and her internship at St. Louis Maternity Hospital. Stewart recounts the beginning of the first contraceptive clinic in St. Louis, the Maternal Health Association of Missouri (later Planned Parenthood of St. Louis), and some of its founders, Frederick J. Taussig, Robert J. Crossen, and Helen Buss. She also recalls her work at the clinic and its development over the years. The interview concluded with a discussion about problems with medical malpractice insurance and the rising cost of medical care. Audio quality of interview is poor. Interviewed by William R. Massa on May 17, 1977. OH033. Approximate Length 32 minutes.

Stewart, Frances H.

William M. Landau Oral History (OH107)

  • OH107
  • Collection
  • June 15, 1990

An interview of the Washington University Medical Center Desegregation History Project, conducted by Edwin W. McCleskey, James Carter, and William Guideman, 1990. Approximate Length: 67 minutes. See also the William M. Landau Papers (FC119).

Landau discusses his experience with segregation in St. Louis as a child and as medical student, house officer, and resident at Barnes Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine as background to the desegregation of hospitals and Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. He recalls the desegregation of Barnes Hospital was set in motion by David Goldring, Alexis Hartman Sr. and ? Park White trained African American pediatricians through his world class pediatric residency program at Homer G. Phillips Hospital in the 1940s. Park White also fought get black kids into St. Louis Children's Hospital and his own African American residents as medical staff. Landau recalls the first black medical student's admission in 1951 and his failure due in part to poor preparation but more significantly to a hostile environment. George Saslow, a psychiatrist and head of the outpatient clinic, was key in building a better environment for subsequent black applicants and students.

Landau, William M.

Viktor Hamburger Oral History

  • OH067
  • Collection
  • 6/30/1983

Viktor Hamburger discusses major points in his long career as an embryologist – his early work in Germany with Hans Spemann and the study of the organizer effect; his experience coming to the United States in 1932 as a Rockefeller fellow and staying on after Hitler’s “cleansing of the professions” in Germany; joining the faculty of Washington University and his research there. Hamburger talks about his colleagues such as Rita Levi-Montalcini and their discovery of naturally occurring neuronal death, his work with Levi-Montalcini and Stanley Cohen on the discovery of nerve growth factor (NGF), and his study of animal behavior development and motility. Interviewed by Dale Purves, M.D. on June 30, 1983. OH067. Approximate Length 80 minutes.

Hamburger, Viktor

Bernard Becker Oral History

  • OH061
  • Collection
  • 10/19/1990

Transcript of 3 interviews with Bernard Becker conducted in the fall of 1990. In the first interview Becker describes his early years and education. He discusses his undergraduate studies at Princeton University and his mentor there, H. S. Taylor; his graduate studies at Harvard Medical School during World War II and his military service as a psychiatrist; and his post-war residency training and research with Jonas Friedenwald at the Wilmer Eye Institute at Johns Hopkins. In the second interview Becker describes the challenges of balancing clinical work, research, and administration as head of the Department of Ophthalmology at Washington University School of Medicine from 1953 to 1988. Becker discusses the expansion of the Department of Ophthalmology, his research in the causes and control of glaucoma, and his efforts to integrate the university’s affiliated hospitals. In the third interview, Becker describes the changes in academic medicine and research from the 1950s to the 1980s. He discusses some of the efforts leading to the establishment of the National Eye Institute in 1968, and his work to fund and construct a new medical library at Washington University. Following the 3rd interview is Dr. Becker's summary of his career. Interviewed by Marion Hunt on October 19, 1990; November 2, 1990, and unknown date [Fall 1990]. OH061. Approximate Length 30 leaves.

Becker, Bernard

Herbert A. Anderson Oral History

  • OH022
  • Collection
  • 5/13/1976

Anderson discusses his experiences as a student at the Washington University School of Medicine in the 1920s and some of his instructors, including Evarts A. Graham and Ernest Sachs. Anderson also details his experiences as senior medical officer on a hospital transport ship during World War II and his continuing study of abdominal surgery at the Allgemeine Krankenhaus at the University of Vienna. Interviewed by Darryl B. Podoll on May 13 , 1976. OH022. Approximate Length 41 minutes.

Anderson, Herbert A., Jr.

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