Type of entity
Authorized form of name
Shaffer, Philip A.
Parallel form(s) of name
Standardized form(s) of name according to other rules
Other form(s) of name
- Shaffer, Dr.
- Shaffer, Philip
- Shaffer, Philip Anderson
Identifiers for corporate bodies
Dates of existence
Philip A. Shaffer (1881-1960) was born in Martinsburg, West Virginia, son of Joseph H. and Hannah Anderson Shaffer. After preliminary education in Martinsburg, he entered the University of West Virginia at the age of 15 and, after receiving his AB, attended Harvard University, obtaining his PhD in biological chemistry in 1904. Shaffer married Nan Jefferson Evans in 1904. The couple had three children, Jane Jefferson Prince of St. Louis, Nancy Elizabeth Shaffer, and Philip Anderson Shaffer, Jr.
While working for his doctorate at Harvard, he was a research biological chemist at McLean Hospital in Waverly, Massachusetts, 1900-1903. After graduation from Harvard, Shaffer became Assistant and Instructor of Chemical Pathology at Cornell University Medical College in New York, remaining there for six years. In 1910 he was appointed Professor of Biological Chemistry and Head of the Department at Washington University School of Medicine, a position he retained until 1946. He twice served as Dean of the School, from 1915 to 1919 and from 1937 to 1946. He was Distinguished Service Professor of Biochemistry from 1946 to 1952, becoming Emeritus in 1951 when he retired from the Medical School Faculty. His teaching career was interrupted briefly during World War I when he served as a Major in the U.S. Army, A.E.F., being given the responsibility for the diets of the overseas personnel. Shaffer was a member of the following societies: Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science, National Academy of Sciences, American Society of Biological Chemists (Secretary 1913-1915, President 1923-1924), American Philosophical Society, Phi Beta Kappa, Sigma Xi, Phi Kappa Psi, Alpha Tau Omega.
Shaffer first worked with Otto Folin and his first scientific publication, in 1901, concerned the quantitative determination of uric acid in urine. Later papers were published which dealt both with broad concepts of metabolism over a wide field, and with specific chemical methods of study. One of his early important contributions was his study of metabolism in typhoid fever, which lead to the development of the Coleman-Shaffer high caloric diet in the treatment of that disease. Interest then shifted to relationships of carbohydrate and fat metabolism, with special emphasis on the significance of ketosis. In these studies he collaborated with many of his students and junior staff members - Williams McKim Marriott, Roger S. Hubbard, Michael Somogyi, Alexis F. Hartmann, Edward A. Doisy, Theodore E. Friedemann, and Ethel Ronzoni. Of special interest, Shaffer developed a rapid method of measuring the sugar in small amounts of blood. Banting and Best used his finding in their discovery and assay of insulin. A case arose not long thereafter where insulin was needed to save the lives of two infants in the St. Louis Children's Hospital. Shaffer followed Banting and Best's method. That experience quickly led to understanding that strong acid is needed in the original extraction from the pancreas, and that insulin is a protein and it could be highly concentrated by isoelectric precipitation. At that time, such facts were unknown, either to the Toronto investigators or to the Eli Lilly scientists, who were encountering difficulty in getting consistently potent insulin preparations by the original method. Shaffer's contributions hastened the commercial production of insulin. In his later years, Shaffer became interested in oxidation-reduction reactions, and in this area his contributions were also of significance.
Shaffer published a total of 72 scientific papers. Yet it is probably fair to state that by far the greatest part of his time and efforts were concerned with administrative issues of the School and University that came before him as a member of the Senate and Executive Faculty and as Dean.
Those of us who were privileged to work with Shaffer admired him most for his extraordinary ability to perceive unusual talent in very young people, a trait which led to many valuable appointments to the School of Medicine (W. McKim Marriott, E. A. Doisy, Evarts A. Graham, E. W. West, Carl and Gerty Cori, David Barr, Willard Allen, Barry Wood, R. A. Moore, to mention just a few), for his tremendous courage in never wavering from the high principles which he set for himself and the School of Medicine, and for his extreme loyalty to the School and his utter unselfishness in working for it.
Shaffer died December 4, 1960.
*Adapted from a statement written for the Executive Faculty meeting of December, 1960 by Alexis F. Hartmann, Sr., Carl F. Cori, and Joseph Erlanger. Abbreviated and edited for this introduction November 2001.
Functions, occupations and activities
Mandates/sources of authority
Access points area
Subject access points
Place access points
Authority record identifier
Rules and/or conventions used
Level of detail
Dates of creation, revision and deletion
Entered December 16, 2019
Revised January 6, 2020
Entered by Ashley Chase and revised by Martha Riley